Miscellaneous ear, nose, and throat disorders

Last updated: July 8, 2022

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Drainage or aspiration of auricular hematomas is always indicated.


Cerumen impaction should always be considered in individuals presenting with hearing loss.


In individuals with ear foreign bodies, the other ear canal and both nostrils should also be inspected, as it is common for multiple foreign bodies to be present.



Overview of nasal septal ulceration and perforation
Nasal septal ulceration [9] Nasal septal perforation [10][11]
  • Perforation through all of the layers of the nasal septum (including cartilage), resulting in a communication between the nasal cavities
Clinical features
  • General measures: routine saline lavage, application of nasal emollients
  • Etiology-directed treatment (e.g., penicillin in patients with syphilis)
  • General measures: routine saline lavage, application of nasal emollients
  • Etiology-directed treatment (e.g., penicillin in patients with syphilis)
  • Surgical repair
  • Patients who are not suitable for surgery (e.g., inoperable perforation, high risk): nasal septal prosthesis


Although severe weight loss may cause patulous eustachian tube, weight gain is generally not effective at reversing the condition and, therefore, is not recommended.



Children with congenital external auditory canal atresia may have other congenital anomalies; therefore, a thorough assessment is required.

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