Written and peer-reviewed by physicians—but use at your own risk. Read our disclaimer.

banner image

amboss

Trusted medical answers—in seconds.

Get access to 1,000+ medical articles with instant search
and clinical tools.

Try free for 5 days

One-Minute Telegram Archive

Last updated: February 15, 2021

Introductiontoggle arrow icon

This article contains a collection of content written during 2021 for the One-Minute Telegram, a biweekly newsletter that presents the newest medical research condensed into just one minute of reading. This newsletter is designed for all of our colleagues who want to stay current on the latest medical literature without having to comb through and dissect medical studies themselves. It is peer-reviewed by our team of physician editors and integrated into the Amboss library. Even after a long night shift or a busy day on the wards, it should go down easy. Subscribe by clicking on the image or via the link in “Tips and Links” below.

For the One-Minute Telegram, AMBOSS has partnered with QxMD to bring you seamless access to the medical literature that we review. Read by QxMD can serve as your own personalized medical and scientific journal, allowing you to keep up with the latest new research that impacts your practice in minutes per day. Read is integrated with full-text holdings at thousands of institutions around the globe, including Harvard, Yale, and the Massachusetts General Hospital. Read by QxMD is available for all mobile devices (iOS and Android) and accessible via all web browsers. See “Tips and links” below to try it out.

See also our One-Minute Telegram Archive 2020

Anticoagulation in COVID-19 – does it affect mortality?

One-Minute Telegram 19-2021-1/3 - Early in the pandemic, reports of high rates of venous and arterial thromboembolism gave rise to recommendations for empiric therapeutic anticoagulation in critically ill patients with COVID-19. However, comprehensive data regarding the effects of therapeutic anticoagulation on mortality has remained scarce. [1][2]

This multicenter US cohort study analyzed the incidence of venous thromboembolism (VTE) and major bleeding in patients with COVID-19 within 14 days of admission to an intensive care unit (ICU). Of 3239 critically ill patients with COVID-19 who were included, 43.6% received therapeutic anticoagulation, 6.3% developed VTE, and 2.8% developed major bleeding.

In addition, the investigators performed a target trial emulation that compared survival in patients who had received therapeutic anticoagulation within 2 days of ICU admission to survival in those who had not. [3] Of the 2809 patients included in the analysis, 11.9% received early therapeutic anticoagulation. During follow-up (median of 27 days), the risk of death did not differ significantly between patients who received early therapeutic anticoagulation and those who did not (HR 1.12; 95% CI, 0.92–1.35).

Limitations of this study include observational design, heterogeneous anticoagulation dosing across study centers, and lack of data regarding reasons for the timing of anticoagulation in individual patients. Moreover, lack of specific screening may have led to underestimation of VTE rates.

The take‑home message?

This observational multicenter study reported 6.3% VTE and 2.8% major bleeding incidence among ICU-admitted COVID-19 patients of whom 43.6% had received therapeutic anticoagulation. A target trial emulation showed that early therapeutic anticoagulation did not reduce the risk of death compared to late or no therapeutic anticoagulation. Although the results aid our understanding of the role and timing of therapeutic anticoagulation in COVID-19 patients, they still require confirmation by randomized clinical trials.

  • Title of study: Thrombosis, bleeding, and the observational effect of early therapeutic anticoagulation on survival in critically ill patients with COVID-19 [4]
  • Authors: Al-Samkari H, et al.
  • Journal: Annals of Internal Medicine
  • AMBOSS links: COVID-19

The long shadow of COVID-19: Respiratory and functional sequelae in survivors

One-Minute Telegram 19-2021-2/3 - Evidence is mounting that COVID-19 has long-term sequelae ranging from neurological symptoms to persistent fatigue and lung damage. [5] However, large case series on this new entity termed “long COVID” remain scarce. [6]

This Italian case series included 238 hospitalized patients with severe COVID-19 and assessed pulmonary function, functional impairment, and psychological sequelae 4 months after discharge.

After 4 months, diffusing lung capacity for carbon monoxide (DLCO) was measured in 219 patients. Results showed a DLCO < 80% of normal capacity in 51.6% of patients and a DLCO < 60% of normal capacity in 15.5% of patients.

53.8% of patients showed some degree of functional impairment as measured by a Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB) and, in some cases, a 2-minute walk test. Moderate or severe posttraumatic stress symptoms were reported in 17.2% of patients. Ageusia was present in 5.0%, anosmia in 4.6%, and arthralgia and myalgia in 5.9% of patients.

Limitations of this study include a high risk of selection bias, as 64.4% of eligible patients wished not to participate. Also, since only hospitalized patients with severe COVID-19 were included, the results cannot be generalized to other populations. Lastly, neurological symptoms were not specifically tested even though they are common and may have contributed to functional impairment. [7]

The take‑home message?

In this case series of patients who had been hospitalized for COVID-19, more than half showed reduced lung function (tested with DLCO) and functional impairments at 4 months after discharge. Posttraumatic stress symptoms were reported in almost one-fifth of patients, while ageusia, anosmia, arthralgias, and myalgias were less frequent. This report contributes to specifying the emerging entity termed “long COVID,” but comprehensive analyses and definitions are still lacking.

  • Title of study: Respiratory and psychophysical sequelae among patients with COVID-19 four months after hospital discharge [8]
  • Authors: Bellan M, et al.
  • Journal: JAMA Network Open
  • AMBOSS links: COVID-19

Your Valentine’s Day edition: Of broken hearts, happy hearts, and STIs

One-Minute Telegram 19-2021-3/3

Don’t go breaking my heart – Severe physical and emotional stress can literally break your heart or, as a physician might say, cause Takutsubo syndrome (TTS) – a ballooning of the ventricles that eventually leads to acute systolic heart failure. [9] TTS is typically thought to occur secondary to stressors such as negative life events; and – as if evidence of an association between COVID-19 and increased risk of cardiomyopathy weren’t enough – it now appears that the burden of the pandemic may be another such stressor. A recent case series by Devika Kir and colleagues discussed two women who presented with TTS. Upon questioning the first patient reported extreme emotional distress caused by social isolation, while the second was distressed by her inability to access routine healthcare. [10] The association of pandemic stress and TTS was confirmed by a recent retrospective cohort study by Ahmad Jabri and colleagues, which found that the incidence of TTS among patients presenting with acute coronary syndrome increased from 1.5–1.8% pre-pandemic to 7.8% during the pandemic (rate ratio = 4.58; 95% CI, 4.11–5.11). This increase was not attributable to SARS-CoV-2 infection, since all patients in the study were PCR negative. [11] Turns out the owner of a lonely heart is also at risk of owning a broken heart.

Happy heart syndrome – Can a heart also break from happiness? The short answer is: yes. Jelena R. Ghadri and colleagues studied data from the International Takotsubo Registry to determine whether there was an association between positive emotional stress and TTS. Of the 1750 patients with TTS included in the study, 485 reported a definite emotional trigger prior to the diagnosis, with 20 (4.1%) reporting a positive emotional trigger such as winning a jackpot, attending celebrations like birthday parties and weddings, or reveling in one's favorite driver winning a race. [12] Sure, we’re all eager for the COVID-19 restrictions to end, but maybe we shouldn’t get too excited when they actually do?

Love bites – The consequences of love are many and, unfortunately, include sexually transmitted infections (STIs). But what effect has the advice to stay home, keep your distance, and cover up infectious orifices had on the incidence of STIs? A study by Matthew A. Crane and colleagues looked at CDC data from 2020 and found that the mean number of reported cases of chlamydia and gonorrhea declined after week 11, near the date when the COVID-19 outbreak was declared a national emergency. [13] You might think this was a cause for celebration, heightened only by the fact that almost every other notifiable disease showed a decrease in reported cases during this period as well. But – and we do hope this emotional roller coaster ride won't give anyone TTS – it turns out the news is not so good after all. Rather than reduced transmission, the authors concluded that reduced testing and reporting were more likely responsible for the decrease in numbers.

The take‑home message?

This Valentine's Day don't go breaking any hearts, try to fall madly in love (just don’t get too emotional about it), and barrier-protect the ones you fall in love with!

Online harassment – how are physicians affected?

One-Minute Telegram 18-2021-1/3 - With social media today spanning all walks of life, online harassment has become a problem that affects all of society. As a professional group faced with moral decisions on a daily basis, physicians have always been exposed to their fair share of controversy, but how has social media changed the discourse, and what are the issues stirring the most controversy today?

This report discusses an online survey of 464 participants who self-identified as physicians, 57.8% of which were women and 76.9% of which were white. Nearly one-quarter of participants (23.3%) reported personal harassment on social media over the topics of vaccines (n=10), race (n=4), religion (n=3), gun control (n=3), abortion (n=2), and smoking (n=2), with no significant difference between men and women. However, women were significantly more likely than men to report online sexual harassment (16.4% vs 1.5%, P < 0.001), i.e., explicit messages (n=12) and threats of assault (n=2).

Limitations of the study include the high risk of a reporting and selection bias, as participants were recruited from the study authors’ Twitter followers; the self-report design of the study, which makes it impossible to confirm the accounts of harassment; and the fact that the majority of participants was white, limiting the generalizability of the results.

The take‑home message?

This report strongly suggests that physicians are no exception with regard to the harassment people face in social media. While anti-vaccination stances are a common trigger, harassment over non-medical issues such as race, religion, and gun control are also prevalent. Moreover, female physicians experience sexual harassment more frequently than their male colleagues, reflecting a similar situation in other areas of social and professional life. A more representative examination is needed to assess the extent of the problem in detail and to determine what actions should be taken to address it.

  • Title of study: Prevalence of personal attacks and sexual harassment of physicians on social media [14]
  • Authors: Pendergrast TR et al.
  • Journal: JAMA Internal Medicine

Transfusion of plasma with high antibody levels could reduce mortality in COVID-19 – if the timing is right

One-Minute Telegram 18-2021-2/3 - The evidence on whether the transfusion of plasma with anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibodies reduces mortality in COVID-19 has so far been inconclusive, and there are no established protocols regarding the timing of the transfusion and the levels of antibodies required. [15]

This retrospective cohort study assessed the 30-day mortality of 3082 patients with COVID-19 who had received one unit of convalescent plasma with either low, medium, or high anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibody levels. Demographic characteristics, risk factors associated with severe COVID-19, and concomitant use of therapeutic agents were similar in all three groups.

Among patients who were not on mechanical ventilation, those who received plasma with high levels of antibodies had a significantly lower 30-day mortality than those who received plasma with low levels of antibodies (RR 0.66; 95% CI, 0.48 to 0.91). Unadjusted mortality rates were lower for patients who received the transfusion within the first three days of COVID-19 diagnosis, compared to patients who received the transfusion ≥ 4 days after diagnosis (22.2% vs. 29.5%, respectively).

No effect on mortality was observed in patients who were on mechanical ventilation at the time of plasma transfusion.

Limitations include the retrospective design and the lack of a control group for comparison.

The take‑home message?

Hospitalized patients with COVID-19 who are not on mechanical ventilation may benefit from receiving plasma transfusions with high levels of anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibodies, especially if the treatment is provided within 3 days of diagnosis. However, further studies are needed to confirm this benefit.

  • Title of study: Convalescent plasma antibody levels and the risk of death from COVID-19 [16]
  • Authors: Joyner MJ et al.
  • Journal: NEJM
  • AMBOSS links: COVID-19

New monoclonal antibody helps to reduce body fat in patients with type 2 diabetes

One-Minute Telegram 18-2021-3/3 - Acknowledging the association between obesity and increased insulin resistance, the FDA has approved a number of weight-loss drugs in recent years. [17][18]

The novel antibody bimagrumab was originally developed to treat pathological muscle loss and weakness in sporadic inclusion body myositis but failed to meet its primary endpoint in a phase IIb/III study. The present double-blinded, randomized phase II clinical trial has investigated the drug’s weight-loss effects in patients with type 2 diabetes who were not taking any weight-reducing drugs and who had HbA1c levels between 6.5% and 10% and a BMI between 28 and 40 kg/m2. [19]

75 patients were randomized 1:1 and received either bimagrumab (n = 37, 62.2% women) or a placebo (n = 38, 31.6% women) every 4 weeks for 48 weeks. Furthermore, patients in both groups were advised to follow a calorie-restricted diet and met with a registered dietitian in person at each monthly study visit.

At week 48, patients treated with bimagrumab showed a significant reduction in total body fat mass of -7.31 kg (80% CI: -8.48 to -6.14; P < 0 .001) more than the placebo group. In addition, body weight and HbA1c level were significantly reduced in the bimagrumab group compared to the placebo group (P < 0.001 and P = 0.005, respectively).

More patients experienced transient elevations of pancreatic and liver enzymes in the bimagrumab group, but the frequency of adverse and serious adverse events did not differ between groups.

Limitations of this study include the small sample size and a slight gender imbalance between the groups.

The take‑home message?

In this phase II trial, 48 weeks of treatment with the novel antibody bimagrumab combined with lifestyle interventions helped to significantly reduce total body fat mass, body weight, and HbA1c levels in overweight and obese patients with type 2 diabetes. If a phase III trial can replicate these positive results, bimagrumab could become a valuable addition to the arsenal of treatment for type 2 diabetes.

A CRISPR-Cas miracle? Report on two successful attempts at treatment

One-Minute Telegram 17-2021-1/3 - Hopes are high that selective gene-editing therapy with CRISPR-Cas9 can provide a curative and safe alternative to bone marrow transplant for patients with sickle cell disease (SCD) and transfusion-dependent β-thalassemia (TDT). These reports discuss the use of CRISPR-Cas9 on autologous hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) to reduce the expression of BCL11A, a transcription factor that suppresses the production of fetal hemoglobin. Two patients, one with SCD and the other with TDT, received the autologous CRISPR-Cas9–edited CD34 + HSPCs in a single transfusion following myeloablation with busulfan.

Serious adverse events were mostly related to severe neutropenia following myeloablation.

The take‑home message?

These two case reports demonstrate that CRISPR-Cas9 has evolved from the laboratory to become a real-world alternative in the treatment of monogenic hematological diseases. While large-cohort trials with long-term follow-up are needed to confirm the effects of treatment and assess adverse events, these reports already bear positive news for patients living with genetic diseases such as sickle cell disease and thalassemias.

COVID-19: The Moderna vaccine

One-Minute Telegram 17-2021-2/3 - The mRNA-1273 vaccine, developed by Moderna, relies on mRNA technology and is the second COVID-19 vaccine to receive emergency use approval by the FDA. [22][23]

A total of 30,420 participants aged 18 years or older were randomized 1:1 to receive either 2 doses of the vaccine or a placebo, 28 days apart. The mean age of the participants was 51.4 years; enrollment was adjusted for equal representation of racial and ethnic minorities.

  • Vaccine efficacy to prevent symptomatic COVID-19 with onset ≥ 14 days after the second injection was 94.1% (95% CI, 89.3% to 96.8%; 11 cases vs. 185 cases, respectively).
    • Efficacy was similar across age, sex, race, and ethnicity as well as in patients with and without risk factors for severe disease (e.g., chronic lung disease, cardiac disease, severe obesity).
    • There were no severe courses of COVID-19 (e.g., ARDS or shock) in the vaccine group, in contrast to the placebo group, in which 30 patients developed a severe course.
  • The safety profile was favorable.
    • The most common local reaction was mild to moderate pain at the injection site (reported in ∼ 75%). The most common systemic symptoms were fatigue, myalgia, arthralgia, and headache (reported in ∼ 50%).
    • The overall incidence of serious adverse events did not differ significantly between groups. No deaths occurred in relation to the vaccine.
    • Limitations include that the study was not powered to detect rare adverse events and that the long-term effects remain unknown. The exclusion of children, pregnant women, and immunocompromised patients limits the generalizability of the results.

The take‑home message?

This industry-sponsored study showed that the mRNA-1273 vaccine has a high efficacy and favorable safety profile (with the added benefit that it can be stored at 2–8°C). While this vaccine is already being administered, further investigations are necessary to establish safety and efficacy profiles for populations not included in this study as well as to assess its long term effects. [24]

COVID-19: Variation in hospital mortality rates across the US

One-Minute Telegram 17-2021-3/3 - Mortality from COVID-19 can be influenced by many factors, but does in-hospital mortality vary between hospitals, and has in-hospital mortality changed since the start of the pandemic? [26]

This cohort study used data from 38,517 adult patients with COVID-19 admitted to different hospitals in the US to analyze the differences in the hospital’s risk-standardized event rate (RSER), a composite of inpatient mortality or referral to hospice within 30 days of initial admission.

The overall mean RSER was 11.8% (SD 2.5%) but varied considerably across hospitals (ranging from 5.70% to 24.65%). There was no association between a hospital’s RSER and the number of intensive care unit beds, academic status, profit status, or urban/nonurban setting.

Changes in the RSER over time were assessed for a subset of 27,801 patients in 398 hospitals (n = 27,801; 72.2%). The mean RSERs improved from 16.56% (SD 3.99%) to 9.29% (SD 2.08%) between two study periods from January 1 to April 30, 2020, and May 1 to June 30, 2020. Worsening RSER was associated with an increase in the prevalence of COVID-19 in the hospital’s surrounding communities.

Limitations include that the data was based on a single insurer’s claims. Also, out-of-hospital mortality was not considered. Furthermore, the reasons for the decrease in mortality remain unclear.

The take‑home message?

Overall mortality or referral to hospice in COVID-19 patients decreased in US hospitals over the early course of the pandemic. Hospitals with higher mortality rates had a higher prevalence of COVID-19 in their area compared to hospitals with lower rates. However, further studies are needed to identify other underlying mechanisms for the improvement in mortality, as they may help to guide future hospital policies and treatment strategies.

COVID-19: The BioNTech-Pfizer vaccine is here. How safe and effective is it?

One-Minute Telegram 16-2021-1/2 - After much research and effort, a highly effective and specific treatment for COVID-19 has not been found, but in less than one year after starting development, vaccines are here and have been granted emergency use approval by the FDA. [28][29]

This blinded study presents the results of the mRNA-vaccine (BNT162b2) developed by BioNTech and Pfizer. A total of 43,548 participants were randomized to receive either 2 doses of the vaccine (n = 21,720) or a placebo (n =21,728) 21 days apart. Participant ages ranged from 16 to 91 years and 35.1% of participants were classified as having obesity. Comorbidities included HIV, malignancy, diabetes, and vascular diseases.

  • Vaccine efficacy was 95.0% (95% CI, 90.3–97.6), ≥ 7 days after the second vaccine dose (8 cases vs. 162 cases, respectively).
    • Efficacy was similar among different groups of age, sex, race, ethnicity, BMI, and comorbidities.
    • Severe COVID-19 occurred in one patient in the vaccine group, and nine patients in the placebo group.
  • The safety profile was favorable.
    • The most common local reaction was mild to moderate pain at the injection site. The most common systemic symptoms were fatigue and headache (reported in ≥ 50%).
    • The incidence of serious adverse events did not differ significantly between the vaccine and the placebo groups (0.6% and 0.5%, respectively) and no deaths occurred related to the vaccine.

Limitations include that the study was not powered to detect rare adverse events (like anaphylaxis) and that long-term effects are unknown. [30] Exclusion of children, pregnant women, and immunocompromised patients limits the generalizability of the results.

The take‑home message?

This industry-sponsored study showed that the mRNA-vaccine BNT162b2 is safe and effective in protecting against COVID-19. However, further investigations are needed to confirm if protection is similar between different groups within the studied population, if the vaccine could limit severe disease in people who do get infected, and to establish safety and efficacy for populations not included in this study.

Impact of race and ethnicity on COVID-19 outcomes: what is driving the death rate?

One-Minute Telegram 16-2021-2/2 - Black and Hispanic populations are more affected by COVID-19, but are race and ethnicity independently driving these disproportionately high death rates? [32]

The aim of this retrospective cohort study was to compare the outcome of patients with COVID-19 based on race and ethnicity. Data from 9,722 patients in an integrated health-care system in New York City was used to explore the effect of race and ethnicity on the likelihood of having PCR positive COVID-19 and subsequently worse health outcomes, after adjusting for age, sex, insurance, and comorbidity.

  • Race or ethnicity were independent risk factors for testing positive for COVID-19 for black (adjusted OR 1.3; 95% CI, 1.2-1.6) and Hispanic patients (adjusted OR 1.5; 1.3–1.7), compared to white patients.
  • Among positive patients, Asian patients had the highest likelihood of hospitalization (adjusted OR 1.6; 1.1–2.3). Hispanic, black, and white patients had a similar likelihood of being hospitalized.
  • Black patients were less likely to have critical illness (adjusted OR 0.6; 0.4–0.8) and also had a lower risk of death compared with white patients (HR, 0.7; 0.6–0.9); the likelihood among Hispanic, Asian, and white patients was similar.

Limitations include that data on the final outcome was not available for 4.5% of the patients at the end of the study period.


The take‑home message?

Black and Hispanic patients had a higher likelihood than white patients of testing positive for COVID-19. However, once hospitalized, their health outcomes were similar to or better than white patient outcomes. So why then is their non-adjusted, general risk of death due to COVID-19 higher? The authors' hypothesis: social determinants of health increase the probability of contracting the disease and barriers to seeking healthcare increase the number of deaths occurring at home. [33]

  • Title of study: Assessment of racial/ethnic disparities in hospitalization and mortality in patients with COVID-19 in New York City [34]
  • Authors: Ogedegbe et al.
  • Journal: JAMA Network Open
  • AMBOSS links: COVID-19
  1. Frangoul H, Altshuler D, Cappellini MD, et al. CRISPR-Cas9 Gene Editing for Sickle Cell Disease and β-Thalassemia. N Engl J Med. 2020 . doi: 10.1056/nejmoa2031054 . | Open in Read by QxMD
  2. Jackson LA, Anderson EJ, Rouphael NG, et al. An mRNA Vaccine against SARS-CoV-2 — Preliminary Report. N Engl J Med. 2020; 383 (20): p.1920-1931. doi: 10.1056/nejmoa2022483 . | Open in Read by QxMD
  3. FDA emergency authorization - Moderna COVID-19 Vaccine. https://www.fda.gov/emergency-preparedness-and-response/coronavirus-disease-2019-covid-19/moderna-covid-19-vaccine. . Accessed: January 18, 2021.
  4. A Study to Evaluate the Safety, Reactogenicity, and Effectiveness of mRNA-1273 Vaccine in Adolescents 12 to <18 Years Old to Prevent COVID-19 (TeenCove). https://www.clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/study/NCT04649151?term=NCT04470427&draw=2&rank=2. . Accessed: January 18, 2021.
  5. Baden LR, El Sahly HM, Essink B, et al. Efficacy and Safety of the mRNA-1273 SARS-CoV-2 Vaccine. N Engl J Med. 2020 . doi: 10.1056/nejmoa2035389 . | Open in Read by QxMD
  6. Why do COVID death rates seem to be falling?. https://www.nature.com/articles/d41586-020-03132-4. . Accessed: January 18, 2021.
  7. Asch DA, Sheils NE, Islam MN, et al. Variation in US Hospital Mortality Rates for Patients Admitted With COVID-19 During the First 6 Months of the Pandemic. JAMA Intern. Med.. 2020 . doi: 10.1001/jamainternmed.2020.8193 . | Open in Read by QxMD
  8. Infectious Diseases Society of America Guidelines on the Treatment and Management of Patients with COVID-19. https://www.idsociety.org/practice-guideline/covid-19-guideline-treatment-and-management/#toc-10. Updated: December 2, 2020. Accessed: December 28, 2020.
  9. US FDA Emergency Use Authorization (EUA) for Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 Vaccine. https://www.fda.gov/emergency-preparedness-and-response/coronavirus-disease-2019-covid-19/pfizer-biontech-covid-19-vaccine. Updated: October 11, 2020. Accessed: December 28, 2020.
  10. Interim Considerations: Preparing for the Potential Management of Anaphylaxis at COVID-19 Vaccination Sites. https://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/covid-19/info-by-product/pfizer/anaphylaxis-management.html. Updated: December 16, 2020. Accessed: December 28, 2020.
  11. Polack FP, Thomas SJ, Kitchin N, et al. Safety and Efficacy of the BNT162b2 mRNA Covid-19 Vaccine. N Engl J Med. 2020 . doi: 10.1056/nejmoa2034577 . | Open in Read by QxMD
  12. COVID-19 Hospitalization and Death by Race/Ethnicity. https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/covid-data/investigations-discovery/hospitalization-death-by-race-ethnicity.html. Updated: November 30, 2020. Accessed: December 28, 2020.
  13. Social Determinants of Health: Know What Affects Health. https://www.cdc.gov/socialdeterminants/index.htm. Updated: August 19, 2020. Accessed: December 28, 2020.
  14. Ogedegbe G, Ravenell J, Adhikari S, et al. Assessment of Racial/Ethnic Disparities in Hospitalization and Mortality in Patients With COVID-19 in New York City. JAMA Network Open. 2020; 3 (12): p.e2026881. doi: 10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2020.26881 . | Open in Read by QxMD
  15. Pendergrast TR, Jain S, Trueger NS, Gottlieb M, Woitowich NC, Arora VM. Prevalence of Personal Attacks and Sexual Harassment of Physicians on Social Media. JAMA Internal Medicine. 2021 . doi: 10.1001/jamainternmed.2020.7235 . | Open in Read by QxMD
  16. Agarwal A, Mukherjee A, Kumar G, Chatterjee P, Bhatnagar T, Malhotra P. Convalescent plasma in the management of moderate covid-19 in adults in India: open label phase II multicentre randomised controlled trial (PLACID Trial). BMJ. 2020 : p.m3939. doi: 10.1136/bmj.m3939 . | Open in Read by QxMD
  17. Joyner MJ, Carter RE, Senefeld JW, et al. Convalescent Plasma Antibody Levels and the Risk of Death from Covid-19. N Engl J Med. 2021 . doi: 10.1056/nejmoa2031893 . | Open in Read by QxMD
  18. Roberts CK, Hevener AL, Barnard RJ. Metabolic Syndrome and Insulin Resistance: Underlying Causes and Modification by Exercise Training. Comprehensive Physiology. 2013 . doi: 10.1002/cphy.c110062 . | Open in Read by QxMD
  19. Kushner RF. Weight Loss Strategies for Treatment of Obesity: Lifestyle Management and Pharmacotherapy. Prog Cardiovasc Dis. 2018; 61 (2): p.246-252. doi: 10.1016/j.pcad.2018.06.001 . | Open in Read by QxMD
  20. MorphoSys AG : MorphoSys Provides Update on Results From Partner's Phase 2b/3 RESILIENT Study of Bimagrumab. https://www.morphosys.com/media-investors/media-center/morphosys-ag-morphosys-provides-update-on-results-from-partners-phase. Updated: April 21, 2016. Accessed: February 1, 2021.
  21. Heymsfield SB, Coleman LA, Miller R, et al. Effect of Bimagrumab vs Placebo on Body Fat Mass Among Adults With Type 2 Diabetes and Obesity. JAMA Network Open. 2021; 4 (1): p.e2033457. doi: 10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2020.33457 . | Open in Read by QxMD
  22. Helms J, Tacquard C, et al. High risk of thrombosis in patients with severe SARS-CoV-2 infection: a multicenter prospective cohort study. Intensive Care Med. 2020; 46 (6): p.1089-1098. doi: 10.1007/s00134-020-06062-x . | Open in Read by QxMD
  23. Barnes GD, Burnett A, Allen A, et al. Thromboembolism and anticoagulant therapy during the COVID-19 pandemic: interim clinical guidance from the anticoagulation forum.. J Thromb Thrombolysis. 2020; 50 (1): p.72-81. doi: 10.1007/s11239-020-02138-z . | Open in Read by QxMD
  24. Labrecque JA, Swanson SA. Target trial emulation: teaching epidemiology and beyond.. Eur J Epidemiol. 2017; 32 (6): p.473-475. doi: 10.1007/s10654-017-0293-4 . | Open in Read by QxMD
  25. Al-Samkari H, Gupta S, Leaf RK, et al. Thrombosis, Bleeding, and the Observational Effect of Early Therapeutic Anticoagulation on Survival in Critically Ill Patients With COVID-19. Ann Intern Med. 2021 . doi: 10.7326/m20-6739 . | Open in Read by QxMD
  26. Marshall M. The lasting misery of coronavirus long-haulers. Nature. 2020; 585 (7825): p.339-341. doi: 10.1038/d41586-020-02598-6 . | Open in Read by QxMD
  27. EDITORIAL. Long COVID: let patients help define long-lasting COVID symptoms. Nature. 2020; 586 (7828): p.170-170. doi: 10.1038/d41586-020-02796-2 . | Open in Read by QxMD
  28. Carfì A, Bernabei R, Landi F. Persistent Symptoms in Patients After Acute COVID-19. JAMA. 2020; 324 (6): p.603. doi: 10.1001/jama.2020.12603 . | Open in Read by QxMD
  29. Bellan M, Soddu D, Balbo PE, et al. Respiratory and Psychophysical Sequelae Among Patients With COVID-19 Four Months After Hospital Discharge. JAMA Network Open. 2021; 4 (1): p.e2036142. doi: 10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2020.36142 . | Open in Read by QxMD
  30. Boyd B, Solh T. Takotsubo cardiomyopathy. J Am Acad Physician Assist. 2020; 33 (3): p.24-29. doi: 10.1097/01.jaa.0000654368.35241.fc . | Open in Read by QxMD
  31. Kir D, Beer N, De Marchena EJ. Takotsubo cardiomyopathy caused by emotional stressors in the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID‐19) pandemic era. J Card Surg. 2020; 36 (2): p.764-769. doi: 10.1111/jocs.15251 . | Open in Read by QxMD
  32. Jabri A, Kalra A, Kumar A, et al. Incidence of Stress Cardiomyopathy During the Coronavirus Disease 2019 Pandemic. JAMA Network Open. 2020; 3 (7): p.e2014780. doi: 10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2020.14780 . | Open in Read by QxMD
  33. Ghadri JR, Sarcon A, Diekmann J, et al. Happy heart syndrome: role of positive emotional stress in takotsubo syndrome. Eur Heart J. 2016; 37 (37): p.2823-2829. doi: 10.1093/eurheartj/ehv757 . | Open in Read by QxMD
  34. Crane MA, Popovic A, Stolbach AI, Ghanem KG. Reporting of sexually transmitted infections during the COVID-19 pandemic. Sex Transm Infect. 2020 : p.sextrans-2020-054805. doi: 10.1136/sextrans-2020-054805 . | Open in Read by QxMD