Last updated: August 9, 2021
Rosacea is a chronic inflammatory skin disease that may be triggered by a number of factors (e.g., alcohol, stress). The etiology is unclear; however, the disease is more common in females and middle-aged individuals with fair skin. The disease presents with central facial erythema, telangiectasias, and papules/pustules. In severe cases, the nose develops a large, bulbous shape (rhinophyma). In contrast to acne, comedones are not present. Treatment options include the avoidance of triggers, topical agents (e.g., metronidazole, brimonidine) for mild disease and oral agents (e.g., metronidazole) for more severe disease.
Sex: ♀ > ♂ 
Age range: 30–60 years 
Epidemiological data refers to the US, unless otherwise specified.
The cause of rosacea is not entirely understood. It involves chronic inflammation of skin and is especially associated with triggers that increase body temperature.
- Skin and sebaceous glands thicken
- Inflammatory, widespread nodules
Rhinophyma: enlarged, bulbous nose (almost exclusively in males)
- Similar changes may occur on the chin, forehead, cheeks, and ears
In contrast to acne, comedones are NOT present in patients with rosacea.
The differential diagnoses listed here are not exhaustive.
- Small brown papules, especially around the mouth and eyes
- Granulomatous lesions may occur on their own, without other symptoms of rosacea
Histology: tuberculoid granulomas
All patients with rosacea and concurrent eye problems should have their eyes examined by an ophthalmologist.
We list the most important complications. The selection is not exhaustive.
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