Toe deformities

Last updated: June 20, 2023

Summarytoggle arrow icon

Toe deformities are pathological deviations of one or several toes from the anatomical norm. The most common deformity is hallux valgus, a lateral deviation of the large toe at the metatarsophalangeal joint. The etiology of hallux valgus is multifactorial and includes biomechanical instability, poorly fitting shoe wear, neuromuscular diseases, and connective tissue disorders. It presents with pain and inflammation of the metatarsophalangeal joint. Treatment options include special footwear and inlays, pain management and corrective surgery. This article also discusses hallux varus, hammer toe, and claw toe.

Diagnostic considerationstoggle arrow icon

Do not confuse the protruding lateral and medial sesamoid bones with pathological structures.

Hallux valgustoggle arrow icon

Other toe deformitiestoggle arrow icon

See also “Diabetic foot deformities.”

Icon of a lock3 free articles remaining

You have 3 free member-only articles left this month. Sign up and get unlimited access.
 Evidence-based content, created and peer-reviewed by physicians. Read the disclaimer