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Collection of orthopedic conditions

Last updated: April 15, 2021

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This article covers various orthopedic conditions, including bursitis, orthopedic cysts, stress fractures, genu valgum and genu varum, forearm fractures, and plantar fasciitis.

Rupture of a popliteal cyst may mimic a deep vein thrombosis!

  • Definition: complete bone fracture caused by repetitive stress without underlying bone pathology or disease affecting the bone
  • Etiology: Increased load or frequency of physical activity can facilitate bone resorption.
  • Risk factors
    • Repetitive high-intensity physical activity
    • Improper technique during physical activity
    • Ill-fitting footwear
    • Caloric restriction; , especially in patients with anorexia nervosa
    • Decreased bone density (e.g., bisphosphonates use)
    • Calcium deficiencies
    • Female sex
  • Clinical features
  • Diagnostics
    • Clinical diagnosis
    • Conventional x-rays can appear normal in the first 2–3 weeks.
    • MRI for definitive diagnosis: detects fracture line , surrounding tissue damage, and edema
  • Treatment

  • Definition: valgus (lateral) misalignment of the knee, resulting in a knocked knee deformity
  • Etiology
  • Clinical features of pathological valgus
    • Unilateral valgus that is progressive (after 4–5 years of age) or persistent (after 7 years of age)
    • Severe valgus
    • Gait abnormalities and congenital flat feet
    • Features suggestive of an underlying disease (e.g., unilateral deformity, short stature, fever, knee or foot pain, abnormal swelling)
  • Diagnostics: if pathological valgus is suspected, imaging and/or metabolic evaluation to determine underlying disease
  • Treatment
    • Physiological valgus may improve by the age of 7 years and should be managed with close observation and reassurance.
    • Medical treatment of the underlying pathology
    • For persistent symptoms in patients older than 10 years, surgery is indicated.

  • Definition: varus (medial) misalignment of the knee, resulting in a bowleg deformity
  • Epidemiology: common in children
  • Etiology
  • Clinical features of pathological varus
    • Bowing that is progressive or persistent (after 3 years of age)
    • Severe bowing
    • Gait abnormalities
    • Features suggestive of an underlying disease (e.g., unilateral deformity, short stature, fever, knee or foot pain, abnormal swelling)
  • Diagnostics: if pathological varus is suspected, imaging and/or metabolic evaluation to determine underlying disease
  • Treatment
    • Physiological varus usually improves by 24 months and should be followed by close observation.
    • Treatment of the underlying pathology
    • For persistent symptoms; that do not respond to medical management, surgery is indicated.

Colles and smith fractures

Monteggia fracture

Galeazzi fracture

Other forearm fractures

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  3. Long SS, Surrey DE, Nazarian LN. Sonography of greater trochanteric pain syndrome and the rarity of primary bursitis. Am J Roentgenol. 2013; 201 (5): p.1083-1086. doi: 10.2214/ajr.12.10038 . | Open in Read by QxMD
  4. Reid D. The management of greater trochanteric pain syndrome: A systematic literature review.. Journal of orthopaedics. 2016; 13 (1): p.15-28. doi: 10.1016/j.jor.2015.12.006 . | Open in Read by QxMD
  5. Jeong HJ, Lee SH, Ko CS. Meniscectomy. Knee Surg Relat Res. 2012; 24 (3): p.129-136. doi: 10.5792/ksrr.2012.24.3.129 . | Open in Read by QxMD
  6. Stone CK, Humphries R. CURRENT Diagnosis and Treatment Emergency Medicine. Lange ; 2011