Mitral valve prolapse

Last updated: March 23, 2022

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Mitral valve prolapse (MVP) is caused by a structural defect of the mitral valve that results in mitral leaflets bulging into the left atrium during systole. In the US, MVP is the most common heart valve abnormality and the most common cause of mitral regurgitation (MR). Although MVP is typically asymptomatic, symptoms (eg., palpitations, fatigue, dyspnea) may arise, especially if associated with MR. A mitral prolapse click is a classic auscultatory finding MVP and diagnosis is made with echocardiography. No specific treatment is needed unless severe, symptomatic MR is present, in which case mitral valve repair or replacement is required.

Epidemiologytoggle arrow icon


Epidemiological data refers to the US, unless otherwise specified.

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  • No treatment is required in most cases.
  • Patients with severe mitral regurgitation : mitral valve repair or replacement (see “Therapy” in “Mitral regurgitation”)
  • Additional treatment is required when complications arise (see “Complications” below)


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We list the most important complications. The selection is not exhaustive.

Referencestoggle arrow icon

  1. Loehr JP, Synhorst DP, Wolfe RR, Hagerman RJ, Opitz JM, Reynolds JF. Aortic root dilatation and mitral valve prolapse in the fragile X syndrome. Am J Med Genet. 1986; 23 (1-2): p.189-194.doi: 10.1002/ajmg.1320230113 . | Open in Read by QxMD
  2. Kasper DL, Fauci AS, Hauser SL, Longo DL, Lameson JL, Loscalzo J. Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine. McGraw-Hill Education ; 2015
  3. Basso C, Perazzolo Marra M, Rizzo S, et al.. Arrhythmic mitral valve prolapse and sudden cardiac death. Circulation. 2015; 132 (7): p.556-566.doi: 10.1161/circulationaha.115.016291 . | Open in Read by QxMD
  4. Narayanan K, Uy-Evanado A, Teodorescu C, et al.. Mitral valve prolapse and sudden cardiac arrest in the community. Heart Rhythm. 2016; 13 (2): p.498-503.doi: 10.1016/j.hrthm.2015.09.026 . | Open in Read by QxMD
  5. Hayek E, Gring C, Griffin B. Mitral valve prolapse. Lancet. 2005; 365 (9458): p.507-518.doi: 10.1016/s0140-6736(05)70275-0 . | Open in Read by QxMD
  6. Kumar V, Abbas AK, Aster JC. Robbins & Cotran Pathologic Basis of Disease. Elsevier Saunders ; 2014
  7. Freed LA, Levy D, Levine RA, et al. Prevalence and clinical outcome of mitral-valve prolapse. N Engl J Med. 1999; 341 (1): p.1-7.doi: 10.1056/nejm199907013410101 . | Open in Read by QxMD

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