Trusted medical expertise in seconds.

Access 1,000+ clinical and preclinical articles. Find answers fast with the high-powered search feature and clinical tools.

Try free for 5 days
Evidence-based content, created and peer-reviewed by physicians. Read the disclaimer.


Last updated: July 12, 2021

Summarytoggle arrow icon

Hypogonadism is a clinical syndrome associated with impaired functional activity of the gonads. Both males and females can be affected. It is classified as either primary or secondary: Primary hypogonadism (hypergonadotropic hypogonadism) is typically caused by congenital disorders of sex development affecting the gonads (e.g., Turner syndrome, Klinefelter syndrome) or acquired gonadal injury (e.g., irradiation, infection). Secondary hypogonadism (hypogonadotropic hypogonadism) is most often caused by pituitary or hypothalamic disorders (e.g, craniopharyngioma, Kallmann syndrome). Characteristic features in males include testicular hypoplasia, gynecomastia, and absent facial hair growth, while females commonly present with amenorrhea. Following clinical evaluation, the diagnosis is confirmed with hormone tests, and genetic testing may be considered. Treatment involves management of the underlying cause and hormone replacement therapy.

Hypogonadism is a clinical syndrome associated with impaired functional activity of the gonads.

Hypergonadotropic hypogonadism (primary hypogonadism)

Hypergonadotropic hypogonadism is caused by insufficient sex steroid production in the gonads.

Hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (secondary hypogonadism)

Hypogonadotropic hypogonadism is caused by an insufficient gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and/or gonadotropin release at the hypothalamic-pituitary axis.

Diminished functional activity of the gonads reduced biosynthesis of sex hormones impaired secondary sexual characteristics and infertility

  1. Baillargeon J, Raji MA, Urban RJ, et al. Opioid-Induced Hypogonadism in the United States.. Mayo Clinic proceedings. Innovations, quality & outcomes. 2019; 3 (3): p.276-284. doi: 10.1016/j.mayocpiqo.2019.06.007 . | Open in Read by QxMD