Last updated: March 30, 2022

Summarytoggle arrow icon

Hypogonadism is a clinical syndrome associated with impaired function of the gonads. Both males and females can be affected. It is classified as either primary or secondary: Primary hypogonadism (hypergonadotropic hypogonadism) is typically caused by congenital differences (differences of sex development affecting the gonads (e.g., Turner syndrome, Klinefelter syndrome) or acquired gonadal injury (e.g., irradiation, infection). Secondary hypogonadism (hypogonadotropic hypogonadism) is most often caused by pituitary or hypothalamic disorders (e.g, craniopharyngioma, Kallmann syndrome). Characteristic features in males include testicular hypoplasia, gynecomastia, and absent facial hair growth, while females commonly present with amenorrhea. Following clinical evaluation, the diagnosis is confirmed with hormone tests, and genetic testing may be considered. Treatment involves management of the underlying cause and hormone replacement therapy.

Etiologytoggle arrow icon

Hypogonadism is a clinical syndrome associated with impaired functional activity of the gonads.

Hypergonadotropic hypogonadism (primary hypogonadism)

Hypergonadotropic hypogonadism is caused by insufficient sex steroid production in the gonads.

Hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (secondary hypogonadism)

Hypogonadotropic hypogonadism is caused by an insufficient gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and/or gonadotropin release at the hypothalamic-pituitary axis.

Pathophysiologytoggle arrow icon

Diminished functional activity of the gonads reduced biosynthesis of sex hormones impaired secondary sexual characteristics and infertility

Clinical featurestoggle arrow icon

Diagnosticstoggle arrow icon

Treatmenttoggle arrow icon

Referencestoggle arrow icon

  1. Baillargeon J, Raji MA, Urban RJ, et al. Opioid-Induced Hypogonadism in the United States.. Mayo Clinic proceedings. Innovations, quality & outcomes. 2019; 3 (3): p.276-284.doi: 10.1016/j.mayocpiqo.2019.06.007 . | Open in Read by QxMD

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