Last updated: October 16, 2023

Summarytoggle arrow icon

Suicide refers to the act of intentionally ending one's own life. If that action fails, it is called a suicide attempt. Suicide and suicide attempts are more broadly considered suicidal behavior. By definition, suicidal behavior requires both general thoughts about suicide and concrete, deliberate plans to act upon those ideas (suicidal ideation). While suicidal ideation can precede suicide and, therefore, should be investigated thoroughly, it often occurs independently of any suicidal behavior. While attempted suicide is more common in women, completed suicide is significantly more common in men. Suicidal ideation is often associated with psychiatric illness (e.g., major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder). The most important diagnostic step is the evaluation of possible suicidal ideation and prior suicide attempts. Acute management is focused on stabilization and preventing imminent acts of suicide (e.g., by admitting the patient to a psychiatric institution). After there is no longer an immediate risk of self-harm, underlying conditions and risk factors must be addressed (e.g., with treatment with antidepressants). Frequent follow-ups beginning soon after initial treatment are vital for preventing the recurrence of suicidal behavior.

Definitiontoggle arrow icon

  • Suicidality: a state describing either suicidal ideation, suicide plans, or suicide attempts.
  • Suicidal behavior: includes suicide attempts and completed suicide
    • Suicide: the act of intentionally ending one's own life
    • Suicide attempt: a potentially injurious behavior intended to end one's own life that does not result in a lethal outcome
  • Suicidal ideation
    • Any thoughts of or plans to intentionally end one's own life that do not include preparatory behavior
    • Suicidal ideation and behavior are often present simultaneously. [1][2][3]

Epidemiologytoggle arrow icon


  • Incidence [4]
    • There are ∼ 47,000 suicides every year in the US.
    • Suicide is the 10th leading cause of death for all ages and the 2nd leading cause in individuals 15–34 years of age.
  • Age
    • Peak incidence: 45–64 years
    • Incidence significantly increases after age 15, with another significant increase after age 45. [4]
  • Sex: > [5]
  • Method: > 50% of suicides are by firearm. [6]

Suicide attempts

Completed suicides are more common in men, while suicide attempts are more common in women. [8]

Epidemiological data refers to the US, unless otherwise specified.

Etiologytoggle arrow icon

Risk factors for suicidal behavior [9][10][11]

SAD PERSONS are at risk for suicide: Sex (male), Age (> 45 years), Depression, Previous suicide attempt, Ethanol/substance use, Rational thinking loss (psychosis), Sick (chronic disease), Organized plan (acquisition of weapons/tools), No spouse or social support, Stated intent.

Diagnosticstoggle arrow icon

General psychiatric evaluation [9][11]

  • Ask specifically and directly about suicidal ideation and concrete intent/plans.
    • Helps evaluate the imminent risk of suicide (i.e., need for hospitalization)
    • Allows for assessment of whether the patient is in a position to act on their plans (e.g., possession of firearms)
    • Inform the patient that patient confidentiality may be breached if there is clear evidence of imminent danger or harm to the patient or others.
  • Investigate potential underlying conditions (e.g., mood disorders, schizophrenia, substance abuse, recent severe psychological stress/trauma).
  • Ask about previous suicide attempts (also within the family), feelings of despair, and ambivalence towards death.
  • If previously depressed and agitated patients suddenly become calm or less symptomatic, the risk of suicidal behavior increases.

Further diagnostics

Sudden improvement of symptoms in depressed patients (e.g., a normally agitated patient who is calm) may indicate an imminent suicide plan.

If there is any reason to suspect suicidal ideation, ask the patient about it.

Differential diagnosestoggle arrow icon

Nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) [14]

  • Definition: a pattern/any form of intentional self-injury to the surface of the body (e.g., cutting, burning, excessive scratching) without suicidal intent
  • Epidemiology [15]
  • Etiology
  • Clinical features
    • Depend on the type of self-injury (e.g., cutting, burning)
    • Patterns of scars from previous self-injuries (e.g., parallel cutting or grouped cigarette-burn scars)
    • Patients may present with acute injuries
  • Diagnosis: clinical
  • Differential diagnoses: sexual violence, intimate partner violence, elder abuse
  • Treatment
    • In acute NSSI: depending on the type of self-injury, surgical treatment might be necessary (e.g., stitches)
    • Indications for psychotherapy include:
      • Several episodes of NSSI or a single episode, which was done to cope with distress and/or required medical attention
      • Visible characteristic signs of NSSI (e.g., a pattern of characteristic parallel scars on arms and/or thighs)
    • In pediatric patients, physicians may respect the patient's wish to not inform parents if the child's safety is not at risk; i.e., if the self-injury does not suggest a behavioral pattern (e.g., a single episode), the injury is nonsevere, and there is no suicidal ideation.
    • Literature on the treatment of NSSI remains scarce, but the following interventions and factors have proven beneficial: [16]
      • Early detection to prevent self-injurious behavior from becoming entrenched
      • Thorough assessment of the patient to identify underlying causes (e.g., depression, PTSD) for which NSSI functions as a coping mechanism
      • Collaborative therapeutic setting that focuses on motivation for change and addresses NSSI behaviors directly
      • Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), dialectical behavioral therapy (DBT), cognitive analytic therapy (CAT), and mentalization-based treatment (MBT)
      • Education on and training in cognitive and behavioral techniques, emotional regulation, and problem-solving skills for coping with distress
      • Safety contracts and other risk management measures
    • The following interventions may be beneficial:
      • Family involvement in the course of treatment
      • Pharmacotherapy with drugs targeting the serotonergic, dopaminergic, and opioid systems

The differential diagnoses listed here are not exhaustive.

Treatmenttoggle arrow icon

Acute management [11]

Imminent risk of suicidal behavior [9]

The risk of suicide is imminent if suicidal ideation, intent, and a concrete plan are present.

  • Goal: : risk reduction by actively preventing the patient from suicidal behavior and assuring the patient's safety
  • Approach
    • Hospitalization: preferably admission to a psychiatric unit
      • Ideally, the patient is admitted to the hospital voluntarily.
      • Against the patient's will if the patient is uncooperative and in immediate danger of self-harm
    • Remove hazardous objects from the patient's environment that could be used in a suicide attempt (e.g., remove firearms from home).
    • Do not leave the patient alone or even with his or her family.
    • If necessary, involve the authorities (e.g., local police).
  • Special patient group: If minors are hospitalized due to an imminent risk of suicidal behavior, their parents must be informed; however, parental (or legal guardian) consent for such action is not required.

Elevated risk of suicidal behavior

The risk of suicide is elevated if there is suicidal ideation and intent but no concrete plan is present.

  • Approach
    • Involve the family of the patient and inquire about the patient's psychological and social situation (e.g., history of suicidal ideation, access to firearms, social connections).
    • Take measures to increase the patient's social contacts and interaction with medical professionals.

Long-term management

If antidepressants such as SSRIs are given, the increase in energy and motivation occurs sooner than the improvement in mood. Therefore, suicide risk may increase during the first weeks of treatment. Close observation and frequent follow-ups are vital!

If there is any evidence of suicidal ideation, all firearms should be removed from the patient's home!

Any patient with the intent to act on a concrete suicide plan should be hospitalized immediately!

Follow-uptoggle arrow icon

  • Risk of suicide is generally increased in the following settings:
    • After previous suicide attempt(s)
    • During the first weeks following discharge from psychiatric care
    • During recovery from severe depression
  • To prevent suicide, regular follow-ups should occur:
    • Soon after discharge (ideally within 7 days) [19]
    • Frequently (vital for long-term outcome) [9][20]

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Referencestoggle arrow icon

  1. Olson KN, Smith SW, Kloss JS, Ho JD, Apple FS. Relationship Between Blood Alcohol Concentration and Observable Symptoms of Intoxication in Patients Presenting to an Emergency Department. Alcohol and Alcoholism. 2013; 48 (4): p.386-389.doi: 10.1093/alcalc/agt042 . | Open in Read by QxMD
  2. Posner K, Oquendo MA, Gould M, Stanley B, Davies M. Columbia Classification Algorithm of Suicide Assessment (C-CASA): classification of suicidal events in the FDA's pediatric suicidal risk analysis of antidepressants.. Am J Psychiatry. 2007; 164 (7): p.1035-43.doi: 10.1176/ajp.2007.164.7.1035 . | Open in Read by QxMD
  3. Guidance for Industry, Suicidal Ideation and Behavior: Prospective Assessment of Occurrence in Clinical Trials. Updated: August 1, 2012. Accessed: October 25, 2019.
  4. 10 Leading Causes of Death, United States - 2017, All Races, Both Sexes. Updated: January 18, 2019. Accessed: September 25, 2019.
  5. Suicide in America: Frequently Asked Questions. . Accessed: September 26, 2019.
  6. Suicide Statistics. Updated: February 9, 2021. Accessed: April 26, 2021.
  7. U.S.A. SUICIDE: 2017 OFFICIAL FINAL DATA. Updated: December 10, 2018. Accessed: October 1, 2019.
  8. Spicer RS, Miller TR. Suicide acts in 8 states: incidence and case fatality rates by demographics and method.. Am J Public Health. 2000; 90 (12): p.1885-91.doi: 10.2105/ajph.90.12.1885 . | Open in Read by QxMD
  9. Schreiber J, Culpepper L, Roy-Byrne PP, Solomon D. Suicidal Ideation and Behavior in Adults. In: Post TW, ed. UpToDate. Waltham, MA: UpToDate. Last updated: June 7, 2017. Accessed: July 16, 2017.
  10. Bachmann S. Epidemiology of Suicide and the Psychiatric Perspective. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2018; 15 (7): p.1425.doi: 10.3390/ijerph15071425 . | Open in Read by QxMD
  11. Sadock BJ, Sadock VA, Ruiz P. Synopsis of Psychiatry. Wolters Kluwer Health ; 2014
  12. Nordström P, Samuelsson M, Asberg M, et al. CSF 5-HIAA predicts suicide risk after attempted suicide.. Suicide Life Threat Behav. 1994; 24 (1): p.1-9.
  13. Carlborg A, Jokinen J, Nordström A-L, Jönsson EG, Nordström P. CSF 5-HIAA, attempted suicide and suicide risk in schizophrenia spectrum psychosis. Schizophr Res. 2009; 112 (1-3): p.80-85.doi: 10.1016/j.schres.2009.04.006 . | Open in Read by QxMD
  14. Cipriani A, Pretty H, Hawton K, Geddes JR. Lithium in the prevention of suicidal behavior and all-cause mortality in patients with mood disorders: a systematic review of randomized trials. Am J Psychiatry. 2005; 162 (10): p.1805-1819.doi: 10.1176/appi.ajp.162.10.1805 . | Open in Read by QxMD
  15. Trivedi J, Tripathi A, Nischal A, Nischal A. Suicide and antidepressants: What current evidence indicates. Mens Sana Monogr. 2012; 10 (1): p.33.doi: 10.4103/0973-1229.87287 . | Open in Read by QxMD
  16. Guidelines for integrated suicide-related crisis and follow-up care in Emergency Departments and other acute settings. Updated: November 1, 2017. Accessed: October 2, 2020.
  17. Fadem B. High-Yield Behavioral Science. Wolters Kluwer Health ; 2012
  18. Cipriano A, Cella S, Cotrufo P. Nonsuicidal Self-injury: A Systematic Review. Frontiers in Psychology. 2017; 8.doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2017.01946 . | Open in Read by QxMD
  19. Plener PL, Brunner R, Fegert JM, et al. Treating nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) in adolescents: consensus based German guidelines. Child Adolesc Psychiatry Ment Health. 2016; 10 (1).doi: 10.1186/s13034-016-0134-3 . | Open in Read by QxMD
  20. Turner BJ, Austin SB, Chapman AL. Treating Nonsuicidal Self-Injury: A Systematic Review of Psychological and Pharmacological Interventions. The Canadian Journal of Psychiatry. 2014; 59 (11): p.576-585.doi: 10.1177/070674371405901103 . | Open in Read by QxMD

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