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Hypoparathyroidism

Last updated: December 8, 2020

Summary

Hypoparathyroidism may be due to a variety of mechanisms, including destruction of parathyroid glands (autoimmune or surgical), abnormal parathyroid gland development, altered regulation of parathyroid hormone (PTH), or impaired PTH action on end organs. The resulting hypocalcemia can trigger a variety of symptoms, ranging from muscle cramps to seizures or heart failure. Manifestations of chronic hypoparathyroidism, however, are quite specific, and include basal ganglia calcifications (resulting in movement disorders), cataracts, and skeletal and dental abnormalities. Laboratory findings in hypoparathyroidism include hypocalcemia with low or inappropriately normal PTH, hyperphosphatemia, and normal renal function. Treatment usually includes correcting the hypocalcemia through calcium and vitamin D supplementation and treatment of the underlying cause.

Etiology

Clinical features

Acute manifestations [1]

Chronic manifestations

Diagnostics

Physical examination

Laboratory tests

Differential diagnoses

See “Interpretation of laboratory findings in hypocalcemia.

Pseudohypoparathyroidism type 1A (PHP1A)

Pseudopseudohypoparathyroidism

The differential diagnoses listed here are not exhaustive.

Treatment

  • Treat underlying disease
  • Calcium and vitamin D supplementation
  • Recombinant human PTH can reduce the amount of supplemental calcium and vitamin D required.

References

  1. Jesus JE, Landry A. Chvostek's and Trousseau's signs. N Engl J Med. 2012; 367 (11): p.e15. doi: 10.1056/nejmicm1110569 . | Open in Read by QxMD