Collection of dermatological disorders

Last updated: March 24, 2022

Summarytoggle arrow icon

References:[1][2][3]

[7][8]

Types of miliaria
Miliaria crystallina Miliaria rubra Miliaria profunda
Epidemiology
  • Most common type
  • Usually seen in adult men in tropical climates, who have had repeated episodes of miliaria rubra
Level of sweat duct blockage
Clinical features
  • Clear 1–2 mm vesicles with no erythema

  • Description: reticular erythema with telangiectasias
  • Etiology: paralysis of the deep vascular plexus of the skin caused due to chronic heat application (e.g., infrared radiation, hot water bottles)
  • Pathophysiology: direct skin application of heat for extended periods of time → direct heat triggers increased melanin production → marbled, brownish hyperpigmentation
  • Treatment [13]
  • Complications [13]

  • Callus: thick, toughened skin caused by repeated mechanical pressure and friction
  • Clavus: a painful, hyperkeratotic lesion with a center core (corn) caused by frictional forces and trauma

  • Description: chronic facial dermatitis affecting the perioral region
  • Epidemiology: primarily children and women 20–45 years of age [15]
  • Etiology
    • Unknown
    • Presumably caused by regular application of (glucocorticoid) creams and/or cosmetics
  • Clinical features
    • Erythema with grouped papules and pustules
    • Dry skin with painful burning and a sensation of tightness
    • No residual scarring after resolution
  • Treatment

Types of livedo reticularis [16]
Physiological livedo (idiopathic livedo) Pathological livedo (livedo racemosa)
Definition
  • A vascular syndrome that can be caused by either benign autonomic dysregulation of cutaneous perfusion or pathological obstruction of blood vessels
Epidemiology/etiology
Pathophysiology
  • Autonomic dysregulation (functional disturbance) causing slowed cutaneous perfusion in response to external factors (i.e., cold)
  • Localized obstructions slow the blood flow (organic disturbance)
Clinical features
  • Symmetrical livedo reticularis (regular, small, round) of the extremities and sometimes the trunk
  • Triggered by cold, regresses after application of warmth
Treatment
  • Warmth, sauna, alternating cold and warm baths
  • Treat the underlying disease
Prognosis
  • Improves with age
  • Depends on the underlying disease (usually more difficult to treat)

Livedo reticularis that does not regress after application of warmth is indicative of an underlying vascular disease and requires treatment.

  • Description: inflammatory skin reaction in response to short hair that becomes entrapped within the skin
  • Etiology
    • Usually occurs due to shaving (also known as razor bumps)
    • Most common in African American men because the hair shafts typically form tight coils
  • Pathophysiology
    • Extrafollicular penetration: Hair enters the interfollicular epidermis after it exits the follicular orifice.
    • Transfollicular penetration: Hair penetrates the dermis before exiting the follicular orifice.
  • Clinical features
  • Diagnostics: a clinical diagnosis
  • Treatment

  • Definition: a rare, very aggressive vascular malignancy, arising from endothelial cells of blood or lymphatic vessels [20]
  • Epidemiology: peak incidence age > 70 years [20]
  • Etiology [20]
  • Clinical features [21][22]
    • Location
      • More common in sun-exposed areas
      • Usually occur on the head, neck, and breast
      • May involve the internal organs (e.g., hepatic angiosarcoma)
    • Lesion
      • Blue/purple-colored with a bruise-like appearance
      • Later stage: hemorrhage or ulceration
      • High variability in appearance
  • Treatment [22]
    • Complete resection with wide margins
    • Resection may be complicated by the aggressive course of the disease and delayed diagnosis.

  1. Singh V. General Anatomy. Elsevier Health Sciences ; 2015
  2. Cutaneous Cysts. https://www.msdmanuals.com/professional/dermatologic-disorders/benign-skin-tumors,-growths,-and-vascular-lesions/cutaneous-cysts. Updated: January 1, 2018. Accessed: April 27, 2018.
  3. Sangueza OP, Moradi S, Mansoori P, et al.. Dermatopathology Primer of Cutaneous Tumors. CRC Press ; 2015
  4. Opavsky MA. Cat scratch disease: The story continues.. The Canadian journal of infectious diseases = Journal canadien des maladies infectieuses. 1997; 8 (1): p.43-9. doi: 10.1155/1997/982908 . | Open in Read by QxMD
  5. Berzigotti A, Magalotti D, Zappoli P, Rossi C, Callea F, Zoli M. Peliosis hepatis as an early histological finding in idiopathic portal hypertension: A case report.. World journal of gastroenterology. 2006; 12 (22): p.3612-5. doi: 10.3748/wjg.v12.i22.3612 . | Open in Read by QxMD
  6. Atila K, Coker A, Uçar D, et al. A rare clinical entity misdiagnosed as a tumor: peliosis hepatis.. Ulusal travma ve acil cerrahi dergisi = Turkish journal of trauma & emergency surgery : TJTES. 2007; 13 (2): p.149-53.
  7. Bleibel W, Curry MP. Peliosis Hepatis. In: Post TW, ed. UpToDate. Waltham, MA: UpToDate. https://www.uptodate.com/contents/peliosis-hepatis.Last updated: June 27, 2017. Accessed: September 14, 2017.
  8. Hepatic Peliosis. https://radiopaedia.org/articles/hepatic-peliosis. Updated: September 14, 2017. Accessed: September 14, 2017.
  9. Wenzel FG, Horn TD. Nonneoplastic disorders of the eccrine glands.. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1998; 38 (1): p.1-17; quiz 18-20. doi: 10.1016/s0190-9622(98)70532-8 . | Open in Read by QxMD
  10. Fernández-Crehuet P, Ruiz-Villaverde R. Pitted keratolysis: an infective cause of foot odour.. CMAJ : Canadian Medical Association journal = journal de l'Association medicale canadienne. 2015; 187 (7): p.519. doi: 10.1503/cmaj.140809 . | Open in Read by QxMD
  11. Taïeb A, Plantin P, Du Pasquier P, Guillet G, Maleville J. Gianotti-Crosti syndrome: a study of 26 cases.. Br J Dermatol. 1986; 115 (1): p.49-59. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2133.1986.tb06219.x . | Open in Read by QxMD
  12. Chuh A, Lee A, Zawar V. The diagnostic criteria of Gianotti-Crosti syndrome: are they applicable to children in India?. Pediatr Dermatol. undefined; 21 (5): p.542-7. doi: 10.1111/j.0736-8046.2004.21503.x . | Open in Read by QxMD
  13. Wiechers T, Rabenhorst A, Schick T, et al. Large maculopapular cutaneous lesions are associated with favorable outcome in childhood-onset mastocytosis.. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2015; 136 (6): p.1581-1590.e3. doi: 10.1016/j.jaci.2015.05.034 . | Open in Read by QxMD
  14. Tolaymat L, Hall MR. Perioral Dermatitis. StatPearls. 2020 .
  15. Vlahova L, Kretschmer L, Schön MP, Mössner R. Embolia Cutis Medicamentosa after Subcutaneous Injection with Glatiramer Acetate. Case Reports in Dermatology. 2021; 13 (1): p.114-120. doi: 10.1159/000510017 . | Open in Read by QxMD
  16. Tabor D, Bertram CG, Williams AJK, Mathers ME, Biswas A. Nicolau Syndrome (Embolia Cutis Medicamentosa): A Rare and Poorly Recognized Iatrogenic Cause of Cutaneous Thrombotic Vasculopathy. Am J Dermatopathol. 2018; 40 (3): p.212-215. doi: 10.1097/dad.0000000000000972 . | Open in Read by QxMD
  17. Guarneri C, Bevelacqua V, Polimeni G. Embolia cutis medicamentosa (Nicolau syndrome). QJM. 2011; 105 (11): p.1127-1128. doi: 10.1093/qjmed/hcr194 . | Open in Read by QxMD
  18. Wilbrand J-F, Wilbrand M, Schaaf H, Howaldt H-P, Malik C-Y, Streckbein P. Embolia Cutis Medicamentosa (Nicolau Syndrome) after Endodontic Treatment: A Case Report. J Endod. 2011; 37 (6): p.875-877. doi: 10.1016/j.joen.2011.01.004 . | Open in Read by QxMD
  19. Sajjan V, Swamy M, Lunge S, Pandit A. Livedo reticularis: A review of the literature. Indian Dermatology Online Journal. 2015; 6 (5): p.315-321. doi: 10.4103/2229-5178.164493 . | Open in Read by QxMD
  20. Xeroderma pigmentosum. https://rarediseases.org/rare-diseases/xeroderma-pigmentosum/. . Accessed: December 17, 2020.
  21. Lucero R, Horowitz D. Xeroderma Pigmentosum. StatPearls. 2020 .
  22. Black JO. Xeroderma Pigmentosum. Head and Neck Pathology. 2016; 10 (2): p.139-144. doi: 10.1007/s12105-016-0707-8 . | Open in Read by QxMD
  23. Angiosarcoma - National Cancer Institute. https://www.cancer.gov/pediatric-adult-rare-tumor/rare-tumors/rare-vascular-tumors/angiosarcoma. Updated: February 27, 2019. Accessed: April 6, 2020.
  24. Gaballah AH, Jensen CT, Palmquist S, et al. Angiosarcoma: clinical and imaging features from head to toe. Br J Radiol. 2017; 90 (1075): p.20170039. doi: 10.1259/bjr.20170039 . | Open in Read by QxMD
  25. Tambe SA, Nayak CS. Metastatic Angiosarcoma of Lower Extremity.. Indian dermatology online journal. undefined; 9 (3): p.177-181. doi: 10.4103/idoj.IDOJ_92_17 . | Open in Read by QxMD
  26. Doolittle J, Walker P, Mills T, Thurston J. Hyperhidrosis: an update on prevalence and severity in the United States. Arch Dermatol Res. 2016; 308 (10): p.743-749. doi: 10.1007/s00403-016-1697-9 . | Open in Read by QxMD
  27. Kettelhut EA, Traylor J, Roach JP. Erythema Ab Igne. StatPearls. 2020 .

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