Collection of dermatological disorders

Last updated: March 24, 2022

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Types of miliaria
Miliaria crystallina Miliaria rubra Miliaria profunda
  • Most common type
  • Usually seen in adult men in tropical climates, who have had repeated episodes of miliaria rubra
Level of sweat duct blockage
Clinical features
  • Clear 1–2 mm vesicles with no erythema

  • Description: reticular erythema with telangiectasias
  • Etiology: paralysis of the deep vascular plexus of the skin caused due to chronic heat application (e.g., infrared radiation, hot water bottles)
  • Pathophysiology: direct skin application of heat for extended periods of time → direct heat triggers increased melanin production → marbled, brownish hyperpigmentation
  • Treatment [13]
  • Complications [13]

  • Callus: thick, toughened skin caused by repeated mechanical pressure and friction
  • Clavus: a painful, hyperkeratotic lesion with a center core (corn) caused by frictional forces and trauma

  • Description: chronic facial dermatitis affecting the perioral region
  • Epidemiology: primarily children and women 20–45 years of age [15]
  • Etiology
    • Unknown
    • Presumably caused by regular application of (glucocorticoid) creams and/or cosmetics
  • Clinical features
    • Erythema with grouped papules and pustules
    • Dry skin with painful burning and a sensation of tightness
    • No residual scarring after resolution
  • Treatment

Types of livedo reticularis [16]
Physiological livedo (idiopathic livedo) Pathological livedo (livedo racemosa)
  • A vascular syndrome that can be caused by either benign autonomic dysregulation of cutaneous perfusion or pathological obstruction of blood vessels
  • Autonomic dysregulation (functional disturbance) causing slowed cutaneous perfusion in response to external factors (i.e., cold)
  • Localized obstructions slow the blood flow (organic disturbance)
Clinical features
  • Symmetrical livedo reticularis (regular, small, round) of the extremities and sometimes the trunk
  • Triggered by cold, regresses after application of warmth
  • Warmth, sauna, alternating cold and warm baths
  • Treat the underlying disease
  • Improves with age
  • Depends on the underlying disease (usually more difficult to treat)

Livedo reticularis that does not regress after application of warmth is indicative of an underlying vascular disease and requires treatment.

  • Description: inflammatory skin reaction in response to short hair that becomes entrapped within the skin
  • Etiology
    • Usually occurs due to shaving (also known as razor bumps)
    • Most common in African American men because the hair shafts typically form tight coils
  • Pathophysiology
    • Extrafollicular penetration: Hair enters the interfollicular epidermis after it exits the follicular orifice.
    • Transfollicular penetration: Hair penetrates the dermis before exiting the follicular orifice.
  • Clinical features
  • Diagnostics: a clinical diagnosis
  • Treatment

  • Definition: a rare, very aggressive vascular malignancy, arising from endothelial cells of blood or lymphatic vessels [20]
  • Epidemiology: peak incidence age > 70 years [20]
  • Etiology [20]
  • Clinical features [21][22]
    • Location
      • More common in sun-exposed areas
      • Usually occur on the head, neck, and breast
      • May involve the internal organs (e.g., hepatic angiosarcoma)
    • Lesion
      • Blue/purple-colored with a bruise-like appearance
      • Later stage: hemorrhage or ulceration
      • High variability in appearance
  • Treatment [22]
    • Complete resection with wide margins
    • Resection may be complicated by the aggressive course of the disease and delayed diagnosis.

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