Major neurocognitive disorder

Last updated: November 20, 2023

Summarytoggle arrow icon

Major neurocognitive disorder (dementia) is an acquired disorder of cognitive function that is commonly characterized by impairments in the memory, language, attention, executive function, social cognition, and/or perceptual-motor domains. Most forms are associated with older age. The most common causes of dementia are neurodegenerative (e.g., Alzheimer disease) and vascular disease. While all subtypes of dementia share impairments in cognition, other clinical features may differ depending on the dementia subtype. Initial diagnosis should focus on patient history and neurological examination, including a cognitive assessment. Additional laboratory tests and neuroimaging studies are often necessary to investigate specific causes. An important differential diagnosis is pseudodementia. In contrast to patients with dementia, individuals with pseudodementia often recall the onset of their cognitive impairments, overestimate their symptoms, and are responsive to treatment with antidepressants. In general, specific pharmacotherapy to slow the loss of cognitive function in dementia is of modest benefit; management should focus on nonpharmacological measures. Preventive interventions to reduce modifiable risk factors for dementia (e.g., control of ASCVD risk factors, treatment of hearing loss) may help prevent or slow cognitive decline, although studies assessing the efficacy of specific interventions are lacking. There are no universal screening recommendations for dementia, but clinicians should be vigilant for early signs of cognitive decline in all individuals to allow for early management, e.g., management of reversible causes, adjustment of other medical treatments.

Etiologytoggle arrow icon

Neurodegenerative brain diseases

Additional causes

Think DEMENTIAS for common etiologies of dementia: Degenerative (Alzheimer, Parkinson, Pick disease), Emotional (depression, psychosis), Metabolic (liver or kidney failure, toxins), Endocrine (hypothyroidism), Nutritional (vitamin deficiencies) or Neoplastic (carcinomatous meningitis), Traumatic (TBI), Infectious (syphilis, HIV, CJD), Autoimmune, Stroke.


Clinical featurestoggle arrow icon

  • General: memory impairment
  • Additional cognitive impairment
    • Speech: aphasia, word-finding difficulties, semantic paraphasia
    • Intellectual capacities, reasoning, planning capabilities, and self-control
    • Spatial-temporal awareness (however, the awareness of oneself remains stable for a long time)
    • Apathy
  • Changes in personality, mood, and behavior
    • Early stages: depression
    • Later stages: seemingly unconcerned mood and cognitive impairment is downplayed
  • Dementia associated with CNS infections


Diagnosticstoggle arrow icon

Approach [2][3]

The USPSTF has found insufficient evidence for or against screening for cognitive impairment in individuals with no symptoms; however, assessment for cognitive impairment is a routine part of the Medicare Annual Wellness Visit. [4]

Diagnostic criteria for neurocognitive disorders [2][5][6]

Diagnostic criteria for major neurocognitive disorder (dementia)

These criteria are in accordance with DSM-5. Unlike DSM-5, ICD-10 includes memory impairment as a diagnostic criterion.

DSM-5 diagnostic criteria for major neurocognitive disorder (dementia) [2][5]
Decline in ≥ 1 domain
Additional requirements

Diagnostic criteria for mild neurocognitive disorder (mild cognitive impairment)

Diagnostic criteria are similar to dementia, with the following differences:

  • Cognitive deficits are less severe, i.e., do not interfere with everyday life.
  • Patients are typically aware of their deficits.

The defining difference between MCI and dementia is the degree of functional impairment and cognitive decline.

Initial evaluation of major neurocognitive disorder [2][3]

Obtain the following studies in all patients with suspected dementia to identify the cause of dementia and/or rule out other causes (e.g., delirium).

Additional studies [2][10]

Obtain as indicated under specialist guidance in patients with a rapidly progressive course of dementia, early-onset dementia (< 65 years), or symptoms, risk factors, or other findings suggestive of a specific type of dementia.

Cognitive assessmenttoggle arrow icon

General principles [2][3][13][14]

Obtain neuropsychological testing if there is diagnostic uncertainty despite the use of extensive screening tools.

Overview of cognitive screening tools

Overview of cognitive screening tools
Time requirement Test Domains assessed Important considerations
< 5 minutes

Clock-drawing test [15]

  • Free for general use
  • Commonly used as part of or in combination with other screening tools

Memory Impairment Screen (MIS) [16]

  • Free for general use
  • Scoring
    • Range: 0–8
    • ≤ 4 suggests cognitive impairment

Mini-Cog [17][18]

  • Free for general use
  • Reliable results across ethnolinguistically diverse populations
  • Scoring
    • Range: 0–5
    • < 3 suggests cognitive impairment

Six-item screener (SIS) [19]

  • Free for general use
  • Scoring
    • Range: 0–6
    • ≤ 4 suggests cognitive impairment
5–15 minutes

Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) [20]

  • Proprietary test; requires a fee for use
  • Considered easier than MoCA
  • Scoring
    • Range: 0–30
    • < 24 suggests cognitive impairment

Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) [21]

  • One-hour training and certification are required before use.
  • Distinguishes between MCI and dementia better than MMSE
  • May be too difficult for patients with advanced dementia
  • Scoring
    • Range: 0–30
    • < 26 suggests cognitive impairment

Saint Louis University Mental Status Examination (SLUMS) [22]

  • Free for general use
  • More sensitive than MMSE, especially for detecting MCI
  • Accounts for level of education
  • Scoring
    • Range: 0–30
    • < 27 suggests cognitive impairment

Differential diagnosestoggle arrow icon

Differential diagnosis of subtypes of dementia [23]

Course of disease

Distinctive clinical features

Studies & imaging


Normal aging
  • Insidious onset, typically starting in the sixth/seventh decade
  • Mild decline in some cognitive areas → episodic and working memory affected first
  • Procedural and semantic memory typically preserved
  • Independence in daily activities is preserved
  • No specific tests available
Pseudodementia [24]
  • Associated with major depression, especially in elderly patients
  • Cognitive deficits typically manifest after mood symptoms
  • Typically sudden onset
  • Mimics dementia
  • Complaints of memory loss
  • Mostly depressed mood
  • Patients are able to recall onset of symptoms.
  • Patient gives short answers, e.g., “I don't know”
  • Cognition usually improves after effective antidepressant therapy.
  • No specific tests available
  • Structural or metabolic abnormalities that are associated with depression (e.g., lesions of the limbic system)

Alzheimer disease (AD)

  • Slowly progressive, over ∼ 8–10 years
  • Episodic impairment of memory
  • Characteristic order of language impairment: naming → comprehension → fluency

Vascular dementia (VD)

  • May present with abrupt cognitive decline and stepwise deterioration

Dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB)

  • Steady decline; typically over ∼ 8–10 years but more rapid progression is possible

Frontotemporal dementia (FTD)

  • Usually manifests between ages 40–69
  • Behavioral variant FTD (most common) → early changes in personality, apathy

Normal pressure hydrocephalus (NPH)

  • Potentially reversible
  • CT/MRI: relative dilatation of ventricles with periventricular hyperintensities

  • Lumbar puncture alleviates symptoms
  • Cognitive impairment develops in advanced disease

Wernicke encephalopathy (WE) and Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome (WKS)

  • Potentially reversible
Late neurosyphilis
  • Progresses many years after primary infection (∼ 20 years)

Wilson disease

  • Begins with subclinical hepatitis and progresses to liver cirrhosis and neuropsychiatric involvement if left untreated

Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (e.g., in AIDS)

  • Symptoms due to PML are insidious in onset and can progress over several weeks
Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease
  • Myoclonus triggered by startling (e.g., loud noises)
Huntington disease
  • Steady decline over 15–20 years

Think VITAMINS for the most common causes of rapidly progressive dementia: Vascular, Infectious, Toxic-metabolic, Autoimmune, Metastases, Iatrogenic, Neurodegenerative, Systemic/Seizures/Structural.

The differential diagnoses listed here are not exhaustive.

Managementtoggle arrow icon

Approach [3][28][29]

  • Provide disease-specific treatment if available.
  • Initiate supportive management and management of associated conditions.
  • Arrange support for patients and their caregivers. [3][30][31]
  • Consider referral to hospice for eligible patients. [32]

Behavioral problems (e.g., physical agitation) and fecal incontinence in patients with dementia are associated with caregiver burnout and poor outcomes for patients (e.g., emergency department visits and institutionalization). [3][29][33]

Pharmacological treatment of dementia [3][28][30]

Antidementia medications provide limited improvement of cognitive symptoms. Use shared decision-making to determine if pharmacotherapy is appropriate for the patient after discussing the risks, benefits, and alternatives. [28][31][34]

Discontinue cholinesterase inhibitors approximately 12 weeks after initiation if no beneficial cognitive effects are observed. [3][34]

Supportive management of patients with dementia [3][28][31]

Cognitive training and cognitive stimulation therapy may modestly delay cognitive decline. However, these programs can lead to excessive frustration, which may exacerbate behavioral and neuropsychiatric symptoms. [28][31]

Patients with dementia are less likely to receive adequate pain management at the end of life. Consider using a nonverbal pain scale to assess pain, and follow a step-wise approach to analgesia.

Safety considerations

  • Inform the patient and caregivers about increased risk of driving accidents.
  • Consider referral for driving safety evaluation to assess for driving restrictions.
  • Consider the need for interventions (e.g., supervision) to prevent wandering.
  • Evaluate for risk of falls in older adults.

Advance care planning (ACP) [41]

Management of behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia [3][32]

Avoid drugs with strong anticholinergic effects (e.g., tricyclic antidepressants, diphenhydramine) and use the lowest effective dose of psychoactive drugs. [30]

Only consider using antipsychotics to treat psychobehavioral symptoms of dementia if nonpharmacological measures (e.g., deescalation techniques) have been unsuccessful or there is concern that the patient may pose a threat to themselves or others. [43]

Management of conditions in advanced dementia [3][32]

Malnutrition and weight loss [45]

  • Screen for malnutrition in older adults every 3–6 months and monitor BMI.
  • Assess for potential causes and initiate management accordingly.
  • Ensure support to enable adequate food intake as needed.
  • Avoid dietary restrictions and recommend providing food based on personal preference.
  • Avoid appetite stimulants.
  • Individualize decisions on artificial nutrition and hydration.
    • Consider time-limited use of a gastrointestinal tube in patients with mild to moderate dementia.
    • Provide oral feedings by hand instead of tube feedings in patients with severe dementia. [45][46][47]
    • Withholding nutrition and hydration at the end of life is not thought to affect patient comfort. [32]

Do not initiate tube feeding in patients with severe dementia. [34][45]

Fecal and urinary incontinence


Preventiontoggle arrow icon

Primary prevention of dementia [38][49][50]

Modifiable risk factors

Reduction of modifiable risk factors for major neurocognitive disorder [38][49][50]
Risk factor Recommendations

ASCVD risk factors [38][49]

Lifestyle and social factors Alcohol use
Social isolation
  • Encourage frequent social interaction (e.g., volunteering, visiting friends and family), especially in older adults. [38][50]
Sleep [49]
Hearing loss
Head injury [38]
  • Recommend avoiding activities that can be causes of TBI.
  • Advise wearing a helmet when playing sports and when riding a bicycle or motorcycle. [55][56]
  • Screen for risk of falls in older adults.

Reduction of all modifiable risk factors may prevent or delay approximately 40% of cases of dementia. [38]

Other interventions [38][49][50]

Dietary supplements have not been found to prevent cognitive decline. [38][50][57]

Screening for dementia [4][58][59]

Physicians should remain vigilant for signs of cognitive decline, as early diagnosis may allow for the reduction of modifiable risk factors, mitigation of the impact of cognitive difficulties on other aspects of medical care, and anticipatory planning. [4]

Related One-Minute Telegramtoggle arrow icon

Interested in the newest medical research, distilled down to just one minute? Sign up for the One-Minute Telegram in “Tips and links” below.

Referencestoggle arrow icon

  1. Pinto TCC, Machado L, Bulgacov TM, et al. Is the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) screening superior to the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) in the detection of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer’s Disease (AD) in the elderly?. Int Psychogeriatr. 2018; 31 (04): p.491-504.doi: 10.1017/s1041610218001370 . | Open in Read by QxMD
  2. Falk N, Cole A, Meredith TJ. Evaluation of Suspected Dementia.. Am Fam Physician. 2018; 97 (6): p.398-405.
  3. Arvanitakis Z, Shah RC, Bennett DA. Diagnosis and Management of Dementia: Review. JAMA. 2019; 322 (16): p.1589.doi: 10.1001/jama.2019.4782 . | Open in Read by QxMD
  4. Trzepacz PT, Hochstetler H, Wang S, Walker B, Saykin AJ. Relationship between the Montreal Cognitive Assessment and Mini-mental State Examination for assessment of mild cognitive impairment in older adults. BMC Geriatr. 2015; 15 (1).doi: 10.1186/s12877-015-0103-3 . | Open in Read by QxMD
  5. Kørner EA, Lauritzen L, Nilsson FM, Lolk A, Christensen P. Simple scoring of the Clock-Drawing test for dementia screening.. Dan Med J. 2012; 59 (1): p.A4365.
  6. Buschke H, Kuslansky G, Katz M, et al. Screening for dementia with the Memory Impairment Screen. Neurology. 1999; 52 (2): p.231-231.doi: 10.1212/wnl.52.2.231 . | Open in Read by QxMD
  7. Kuslansky G. The Mini-Cog compares well with longer screening tests for detecting dementia in older people. Evid Based Ment Health. 2004; 7 (2): p.38-38.doi: 10.1136/ebmh.7.2.38 . | Open in Read by QxMD
  8. Borson S, Scanlan JM, Chen P, Ganguli M. The Mini-Cog as a Screen for Dementia: Validation in a Population-Based Sample. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2003; 51 (10): p.1451-1454.doi: 10.1046/j.1532-5415.2003.51465.x . | Open in Read by QxMD
  9. Callahan CM, Unverzagt FW, Hui SL, Perkins AJ, Hendrie HC. Six-Item Screener to Identify Cognitive Impairment Among Potential Subjects for Clinical Research. Med Care. 2002; 40 (9): p.771-781.doi: 10.1097/00005650-200209000-00007 . | Open in Read by QxMD
  10. Folstein MF, Folstein SE, McHugh PR. "Mini-mental state". A practical method for grading the cognitive state of patients for the clinician.. J Psychiatr Res. 1975; 12 (3): p.189-98.doi: 10.1016/0022-3956(75)90026-6 . | Open in Read by QxMD
  11. Freitas S, Simões MR, Alves L, Santana I. Montreal Cognitive Assessment: validation study for mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer disease. Alzheimer Dis Assoc Disord. 2013; 27 (1): p.37-43.doi: 10.1097/wad.0b013e3182420bfe . | Open in Read by QxMD
  12. Tariq SH, Tumosa N, Chibnall JT, Perry MH, Morley JE. Comparison of the Saint Louis University Mental Status Examination and the Mini-Mental State Examination for Detecting Dementia and Mild Neurocognitive Disorder—A Pilot Study. Am J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2006; 14 (11): p.900-910.doi: 10.1097/01.jgp.0000221510.33817.86 . | Open in Read by QxMD
  13. APA Work Group on Alzheimer's Disease and other Dementias., Rabins PV, Blacker D, et al. American Psychiatric Association practice guideline for the treatment of patients with Alzheimer's disease and other dementias. Second edition.. Am J Psychiatry. 2007; 164 (12 Suppl): p.5-56.
  14. Gitlin LN, Kales HC, Lyketsos CG. Nonpharmacologic Management of Behavioral Symptoms in Dementia. JAMA. 2012; 308 (19): p.2020.doi: 10.1001/jama.2012.36918 . | Open in Read by QxMD
  15. Knopman DS, Amieva H, Petersen RC, et al. Alzheimer disease. Nat Rev Dis Primers. 2021; 7 (1).doi: 10.1038/s41572-021-00269-y . | Open in Read by QxMD
  16. Peter V. Rabins, Barry W. Rovner, Teresa Rummans, Lon S. Schneider, Pierre N. Tariot. Guideline Watch (October 2014): Practice Guideline for the Treatment of Patients With Alzheimer's Disease and Other Dementias. FOCUS. 2017; 15 (1): p.110-128.doi: 10.1176/appi.focus.15106 . | Open in Read by QxMD
  17. Goodman C, Evans C, Wilcock J, et al. End of life care for community dwelling older people with dementia: an integrated review. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2010; 25 (4): p.329-337.doi: 10.1002/gps.2343 . | Open in Read by QxMD
  18. Daniel I. Kaufer, Jeffrey L. Cummings, Dianne Christine, Tim Bray, Steve Castellon, Donna Masterman, Audrey MacMillan, Patrick Ketchel, Steven T. DeKosky. Assessing the Impact of Neuropsychiatric Symptoms in Alzheimer's Disease: The Neuropsychiatric Inventory Caregiver Distress Scale. J Am Geriatr Soc. 1998; 46 (2): p.210-215.doi: 10.1111/j.1532-5415.1998.tb02542.x . | Open in Read by QxMD
  19. American Geriatrics Society: Ten Things Clinicians and Patients Should Question. Updated: April 23, 2015. Accessed: May 22, 2022.
  20. Renn BN, Asghar-Ali AA, Thielke S, et al. A Systematic Review of Practice Guidelines and Recommendations for Discontinuation of Cholinesterase Inhibitors in Dementia. Am J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2018; 26 (2): p.134-147.doi: 10.1016/j.jagp.2017.09.027 . | Open in Read by QxMD
  21. JUVA K, MÄKELÄ M, ERKINJUNTTI T, et al. Functional assessment scales in detecting dementia. Age Ageing. 1997; 26 (5): p.393-400.doi: 10.1093/ageing/26.5.393 . | Open in Read by QxMD
  22. Integrated Care for Older People. Updated: January 1, 2017. Accessed: April 17, 2023.
  23. Livingston G, Huntley J, Sommerlad A, et al. Dementia prevention, intervention, and care: 2020 report of the Lancet Commission. Lancet. 2020; 396 (10248): p.413-446.doi: 10.1016/s0140-6736(20)30367-6 . | Open in Read by QxMD
  24. Bahar-Fuchs A, Martyr A, Goh AM, Sabates J, Clare L. Cognitive training for people with mild to moderate dementia. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2019; 3 (3): p.CD013069.doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD013069.pub2 . | Open in Read by QxMD
  25. Cafferata RMT, Hicks B, von Bastian CC. Effectiveness of cognitive stimulation for dementia: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Psychol Bull. 2021; 147 (5): p.455-476.doi: 10.1037/bul0000325 . | Open in Read by QxMD
  26. Piers R, Albers G, Gilissen J, et al. Advance care planning in dementia: recommendations for healthcare professionals. BMC Palliat Care. 2018; 17 (1).doi: 10.1186/s12904-018-0332-2 . | Open in Read by QxMD
  27. Gaster B, Larson EB, Curtis JR. Advance Directives for Dementia. JAMA. 2017; 318 (22): p.2175.doi: 10.1001/jama.2017.16473 . | Open in Read by QxMD
  28. American Psychiatric Association. The American Psychiatric Association Practice Guideline on the Use of Antipsychotics to Treat Agitation or Psychosis in Patients With Dementia. . 2016.doi: 10.1176/appi.books.9780890426807 . | Open in Read by QxMD
  29. Porsteinsson AP, Drye LT, Pollock BG, et al. Effect of Citalopram on Agitation in Alzheimer Disease. JAMA. 2014; 311 (7): p.682.doi: 10.1001/jama.2014.93 . | Open in Read by QxMD
  30. Dorothee Volkert, Michael Chourdakis, Gerd Faxen-Irving, Thomas Frühwald, Francesco Landi, Merja H. Suominen, Maurits Vandewoude, Rainer Wirth, Stéphane M. Schneider. ESPEN guidelines on nutrition in dementia. Clinical Nutrition. 2015; 34 (6): p.1052-1073.doi: 10.1016/j.clnu.2015.09.004 . | Open in Read by QxMD
  31. AGS Ethics Committee and Clinical Practice and Models of Care Committee. American Geriatrics Society Feeding Tubes in Advanced Dementia Position Statement. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2014; 62 (8): p.1590-1593.doi: 10.1111/jgs.12924 . | Open in Read by QxMD
  32. Davies N, Barrado-Martín Y, Vickerstaff V, et al. Enteral tube feeding for people with severe dementia. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 2021; 2021 (8).doi: 10.1002/14651858.cd013503.pub2 . | Open in Read by QxMD
  33. Mitchell SL, Shaffer ML, Loeb MB, et al. Infection Management and Multidrug-Resistant Organisms in Nursing Home Residents With Advanced Dementia. JAMA Intern Med. 2014; 174 (10): p.1660.doi: 10.1001/jamainternmed.2014.3918 . | Open in Read by QxMD
  34. Lazar RM, Howard VJ, Kernan WN, et al. A Primary Care Agenda for Brain Health: A Scientific Statement From the American Heart Association. Stroke. 2021; 52 (6).doi: 10.1161/str.0000000000000367 . | Open in Read by QxMD
  35. WHO guideline: Risk Reduction of Cognitive Decline and Dementia. Updated: January 1, 2019. Accessed: April 13, 2023.
  36. Power MC, Engelman BC, Wei J, Glymour MM. Closing the Gap Between Observational Research and Randomized Controlled Trials for Prevention of Alzheimer Disease and Dementia. Epidemiol Rev. 2022; 44 (1): p.17-28.doi: 10.1093/epirev/mxac002 . | Open in Read by QxMD
  37. Sabia S, Fayosse A, Dumurgier J, et al. Association of sleep duration in middle and old age with incidence of dementia. Nat Commun. 2021; 12 (1).doi: 10.1038/s41467-021-22354-2 . | Open in Read by QxMD
  38. Kapur VK, Auckley DH, Chowdhuri S, et al. Clinical Practice Guideline for Diagnostic Testing for Adult Obstructive Sleep Apnea: An American Academy of Sleep Medicine Clinical Practice Guideline. J Clin Sleep Med. 2017; 13 (03): p.479-504.doi: 10.5664/jcsm.6506 . | Open in Read by QxMD
  39. Krist AH, Davidson KW, et al. Screening for Hearing Loss in Older Adults. JAMA. 2021; 325 (12): p.1196.doi: 10.1001/jama.2021.2566 . | Open in Read by QxMD
  40. Høye A. Bicycle helmets – To wear or not to wear? A meta-analyses of the effects of bicycle helmets on injuries. Accid Anal Prev. 2018; 117: p.85-97.doi: 10.1016/j.aap.2018.03.026 . | Open in Read by QxMD
  41. Lois K. Lee, Michael R. Flaherty, Ashley M. Blanchard, Maneesha Agarwal. Helmet Use in Preventing Head Injuries in Bicycling, Snow Sports, and Other Recreational Activities and Sports. Pediatrics. 2022; 150 (3).doi: 10.1542/peds.2022-058877 . | Open in Read by QxMD
  42. $Interventions To Prevent Age-Related Cognitive Decline, Mild Cognitive Impairment, and Clinical Alzheimer’s-Type Dementia.
  43. Owens DK, Davidson KW, et al. Screening for Cognitive Impairment in Older Adults. JAMA. 2020; 323 (8): p.757.doi: 10.1001/jama.2020.0435 . | Open in Read by QxMD
  44. American Family Physician. Screening for Cognitive Impairment in Older Adults: Recommendation Statement.. Am Fam Physician. 2020; 101 (12): p.Online.
  45. Petersen RC, Yaffe K. Issues and Questions Surrounding Screening for Cognitive Impairment in Older Patients. JAMA. 2020; 323 (8): p.722.doi: 10.1001/jama.2019.22527 . | Open in Read by QxMD
  46. American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. American Psychiatric Association ; 2013
  47. Sachdev PS, Blacker D, Blazer DG, et al. Classifying neurocognitive disorders: the DSM-5 approach. Nat Rev Neurol. 2014; 10 (11): p.634-642.doi: 10.1038/nrneurol.2014.181 . | Open in Read by QxMD
  48. American Psychiatric Association. Desk Reference to the Diagnostic Criteria from DSM-5. American Psychiatric Association ; 2013
  49. Villa C, Lavitrano M, Salvatore E, Combi R. Molecular and Imaging Biomarkers in Alzheimer’s Disease: A Focus on Recent Insights. J Pers Med. 2020; 10 (3): p.61.doi: 10.3390/jpm10030061 . | Open in Read by QxMD
  50. Staffaroni A, Elahi F, McDermott D, et al. Neuroimaging in Dementia. Semin Neurol. 2017; 37 (05): p.510-537.doi: 10.1055/s-0037-1608808 . | Open in Read by QxMD
  51. Knopman DS, DeKosky ST, Cummings JL, et al. Practice parameter: Diagnosis of dementia (an evidence-based review). Neurology. 2001; 56 (9): p.1143-1153.doi: 10.1212/wnl.56.9.1143 . | Open in Read by QxMD
  52. Geschwind MD. Rapidly Progressive Dementia. Continuum. 2016; 22 (2, Dementia): p.510-537.doi: 10.1212/con.0000000000000319 . | Open in Read by QxMD
  53. Araújo JR, Martel F, Borges N, Araújo JM, Keating E. Folates and aging: Role in mild cognitive impairment, dementia and depression. Ageing Res Rev. 2015; 22: p.9-19.doi: 10.1016/j.arr.2015.04.005 . | Open in Read by QxMD
  54. Tsolaki A, Kazis D, Kompatsiaris I, Kosmidou V, Tsolaki M. Electroencephalogram and Alzheimer’s Disease: Clinical and Research Approaches. Int J Alzheimers Dis. 2014; 2014: p.1-10.doi: 10.1155/2014/349249 . | Open in Read by QxMD
  55. Ropper A, Klein J, Samuels M. Adams and Victor's Principles of Neurology 10th Edition. McGraw-Hill Education / Medical ; 2014
  56. Kang H, Zhao F, You L et al. Pseudo-dementia: A neuropsychological review. Ann Indian Acad Neurol. 2014; 17 (2): p.147-154.doi: 10.4103/0972-2327.132613 . | Open in Read by QxMD
  57. Heiss WD, Rosenberg GA, Thiel A, Berlot R, de Reuck J. Neuroimaging in vascular cognitive impairment: a state-of-the-art review.. BMC Med. 2016; 14 (1): p.174.doi: 10.1186/s12916-016-0725-0 . | Open in Read by QxMD
  58. Mak E, Su L, Williams GB, O’Brien JT. Neuroimaging characteristics of dementia with Lewy bodies. Alzheimers Res Ther. 2014; 6 (2): p.18.doi: 10.1186/alzrt248 . | Open in Read by QxMD
  59. Petrou M, Kotagal V, Bohnen NI. An update on brain imaging in parkinsonian dementia. Imaging Med. 2012; 4 (2): p.201-213.doi: 10.2217/iim.12.10 . | Open in Read by QxMD

Icon of a lock3 free articles remaining

You have 3 free member-only articles left this month. Sign up and get unlimited access.
 Evidence-based content, created and peer-reviewed by physicians. Read the disclaimer