Trusted medical expertise in seconds.

Access 1,000+ clinical and preclinical articles. Find answers fast with the high-powered search feature and clinical tools.

Try free for 5 days
Evidence-based content, created and peer-reviewed by physicians. Read the disclaimer.


Last updated: August 30, 2021

Summarytoggle arrow icon

Headache is a symptom commonly encountered in everyday clinical practice, and, according to the WHO, one of the ten most common causes of functional disability. It may be primary (e.g., tension-type headaches, migraine) or secondary (e.g., following head trauma or infections) in nature. Although most episodes of headache are harmless, potentially life-threatening causes (e.g., subarachnoid hemorrhage, meningitis) should always be considered. Identifying the cause of headaches is often difficult and requires a detailed clinical history as well as a thorough physical examination. Additional diagnostics, e.g., imaging, are only indicated if headaches persist despite treatment or if specific clinical features are present that are signs of an underlying disease. This article gives an overview of the most common types of headache and serves as a guide to diagnosing different headache disorders.

Approach to management

  1. Check vital signs.
  2. Perform focused history and examination.
  3. If red flags are present:
    • Obtain brain imaging (either CT or MRI brain with and/or without contrast) based on the red flag symptoms. [1]
    • Perform further targeted diagnostics (see below).
  4. If no red flags are present and suspicion for life-threatening causes is low:
    • Perform a detailed history and clinical exam.
    • Consider whether further diagnostic testing is necessary.
  5. Provide supportive care.
  6. Identify and treat the underlying cause.

Red flags for headache [1]

Life-threatening conditions [1]

  • Lifetime prevalence: > 90%, with female predominance (except cluster headache) [3]
  • Most common forms of headache [3]
    • Tension-type headache: 40–80% of cases
    • Migraine: 10% of cases

Epidemiological data refers to the US, unless otherwise specified.

See “Differential diagnoses” below.

History of present illness

Past medical history, social history, and family history

Physical examination

Consider secondary life-threatening causes if red flags for headache are present!

Approach [4]

  • Diagnostic evaluation should be performed based on risk stratification and the suspected diagnosis.
    • Low-risk headache: No routine laboratory tests or imaging are recommended.
    • High-risk headache: Consider diagnostic workup based on the suspected diagnosis.
  • Primary headache is a clinical diagnosis and typically does not require laboratory or imaging evaluation.

Risk stratification of headache [4][5]

Clinical features
Low-risk headache
High-risk headache

Laboratory studies

Imaging [6]

Recommended initial imaging modality for headache [7]
Initial test of choice Alternatives
Sudden-onset severe headache (i.e., thunderclap headache)
  • CT head without IV contrast
  • CTA with IV contrast
New headache with papilledema
  • MRI head
    • Without contrast
    • Without and with IV contrast
  • CT head without IV contrast
  • CTV head with IV contrast
  • MRV head
    • Without IV contrast
    • Without and with IV contrast
  • CT head with IV contrast
New or worsening headache related to head trauma or accompanied by red flags
  • CT head without IV contrast
  • MRI head
    • Without IV contrast
    • Without and with IV contrast
  • N/A

New primary headache suspected to be of trigeminal autonomic origin

(e.g., cluster headache)

  • MRI head without and with IV contrast
  • MRI head without IV contrast
Chronic headache with new features or change in character, severity, or frequency
  • MRI head
    • Without IV contrast
    • Without and with IV contrast
  • CT head
    • Without and with IV contrast
    • Without IV contrast

Additional diagnostics to consider [6]

The diagnostic modality should be determined by the patient history and clinical presentation. Neuroimaging is usually not indicated for primary or low-risk headaches.

Types of primary headaches
Tension headache Migraine headache Cluster headache
  • 30 minutes to a couple of days
  • 4–72 hours
  • 30–180 minutes
  • Short, recurring attacks
  • Occasionally to daily
  • Episodic or chronic
  • Occasionally to several times a month
  • 1–3 episodes every 24 hours
  • Usually occur in a cyclical pattern (clusters)
  • 60% are unilateral.
  • Mostly unilateral
  • Localized to the periorbital and/or temporal region
  • Dull, nonpulsating, band-like or vise-like pain
  • Constant
  • Pulsating, boring/hammering pain
  • Often burning or piercing pain
  • Attacks develop within several minutes
  • Often wakes patients up from sleep
  • Mild to moderate
  • Moderate to severe
  • Severe, agonizing pain
  • Because of the severity of pain, some patients report experiencing suicidal thoughts (hence the name “suicidal headache”).
Additional symptoms
Triggers/exacerbating factors
  • Stress
  • Lack of sleep, fatigue
  • Routine activities (e.g., climbing stairs) do not exacerbate symptoms.
  • Alcohol
Diagnostic findings
Acute management

The typical migraine headache can be remembered by “POUND”: pulsatile, one-day duration, unilateral, nausea, disabling intensity.

Diagnosis Clinical features Diagnostic findings Acute management
Meningitis [11][12][13]
Intracerebral hemorrhage [14][15]
Subarachnoid hemorrhage [16]
Subdural hematoma (SDH)
  • CT head without contrast: crescent-shaped, concave, hyperdense hemorrhage that crosses suture lines but not the midline
Epidural hematoma [17]
  • CT head without contrast: biconvex, hyperdense lesion
Cerebral venous sinus thrombosis [18]
Giant cell arteritis [20][21][22][23]
Hypertensive crises [24][25]
Ischemic stroke [26][27]
Intracranial space-occupying lesions (e.g., brain tumors) [28][29][30]
Concussion (e.g., mild traumatic brain injury) [31][32][33]
Trigeminal neuralgia [34][35]
  • Paroxysmal (seconds to 2 minutes) and stabbing pain
  • Unilateral facial pain, strictly localized to the distribution of the branches of the trigeminal nerve
  • Frequency and intensity of episodes usually increase over time
  • Tender trigger points
  • Triggered by chewing, talking, cold, and touching specific areas of the face
  • No neurologic deficits
Medication overuse headache
  • Headache with variable characteristics
  • History of analgesic overuse
  • Autonomic symptoms (e.g., nausea)
  • Cognitive or behavioral symptoms (e.g., comorbid depression)

Primary headache

Secondary headache

The differential diagnoses listed here are not exhaustive.

  1. Headache Classification Committee of the International Headache Society (IHS). The International Classification of Headache Disorders, 3rd edition. Cephalalgia. 2018; 38 (1): p.1-211. doi: 10.1177/0333102417738202 . | Open in Read by QxMD
  2. Rizzoli P, Mullally WJ. Headache. Am J Med. 2018; 131 (1): p.17-24. doi: 10.1016/j.amjmed.2017.09.005 . | Open in Read by QxMD
  3. Ravishankar K. “WHICH Headache to Investigate, WHEN, and HOW?”. Headache: The Journal of Head and Face Pain. 2016; 56 (10): p.1685-1697. doi: 10.1111/head.12998 . | Open in Read by QxMD
  4. Uggetti C, et al.. Headache in the emergency department: the role of imaging. Neurological Sciences. 2018; 39 (S1): p.151-152. doi: 10.1007/s10072-018-3379-1 . | Open in Read by QxMD
  5. Edlow JA, Panagos PD, Godwin SA, Thomas TL, Decker WW. Clinical Policy: Critical Issues in the Evaluation and Management of Adult Patients Presenting to the Emergency Department With Acute Headache. Ann Emerg Med. 2008; 52 (4): p.407-436. doi: 10.1016/j.annemergmed.2008.07.001 . | Open in Read by QxMD
  6. American College of Radiology ACR Appropriateness Criteria® Headache. Updated: January 1, 2019. Accessed: January 13, 2020.
  7. Hainer BL, Matheson EM. Approach to acute headache in adults.. Am Fam Physician. 2013; 87 (10): p.682-7.
  8. Silberstein SD. Practice parameter: Evidence-based guidelines for migraine headache (an evidence-based review): Report of the Quality Standards Subcommittee of the American Academy of Neurology. Neurology. 2000; 55 (6): p.754-762. doi: 10.1212/wnl.55.6.754 . | Open in Read by QxMD
  9. Holle D, Obermann M. The role of neuroimaging in the diagnosis of headache disorders. Therapeutic Advances in Neurological Disorders. 2013; 6 (6): p.369-374. doi: 10.1177/1756285613489765 . | Open in Read by QxMD
  10. Cluster headache.
  11. Bamberger DM. Diagnosis, initial management, and prevention of meningitis.. Am Fam Physician. 2010; 82 (12): p.1491-8.
  12. Seehusen DA, Reeves MM, Fomin DA. Cerebrospinal fluid analysis. Am Fam Physician. 2003; 68 (6): p.1103-1108.
  13. Mount HR, Boyle SD. Aseptic and Bacterial Meningitis: Evaluation, Treatment, and Prevention.. Am Fam Physician. 2017; 96 (5): p.314-322.
  14. Hemphill JC, Greenberg SM, Anderson CS et al. Guidelines for the Management of Spontaneous Intracerebral Hemorrhage. Stroke. 2015; 46 (7). doi: 10.1161/STR.0000000000000069 . | Open in Read by QxMD
  15. Claude Hemphill J, Lam A. Emergency Neurological Life Support: Intracerebral Hemorrhage. Neurocrit Care. 2017; 27 (S1): p.89-101. doi: 10.1007/s12028-017-0453-0 . | Open in Read by QxMD
  16. Connolly ES, Rabinstein AA, Carhuapoma JR, et al. Guidelines for the management of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage: a guideline for healthcare professionals from the American Heart Association/american Stroke Association. Stroke. 2012; 43 (6): p.1711-1737. doi: 10.1161/STR.0b013e3182587839 . | Open in Read by QxMD
  17. Bullock MR, Chesnut R, Ghajar J, et al. Surgical management of acute epidural hematomas.. Neurosurgery. 2006; 58 (3 Suppl): p.S7-15; discussion Si-iv.
  18. Saposnik G, Barinagarrementeria F, Brown RD, et al. Diagnosis and Management of Cerebral Venous Thrombosis. Stroke. 2011; 42 (4): p.1158-1192. doi: 10.1161/str.0b013e31820a8364 . | Open in Read by QxMD
  19. Wasay M, Azeemuddin M. Neuroimaging of Cerebral Venous Thrombosis. Journal of Neuroimaging. 2005; 15 (2): p.118-128. doi: 10.1111/j.1552-6569.2005.tb00296.x . | Open in Read by QxMD
  20. Weyand CM, Goronzy JJ. Giant-Cell Arteritis and Polymyalgia Rheumatica. N Engl J Med. 2014; 371 (1): p.50-57. doi: 10.1056/nejmcp1214825 . | Open in Read by QxMD
  21. Salvarani C, Cantini F, Boiardi L, Hunder GG. Polymyalgia Rheumatica and Giant-Cell Arteritis. N Engl J Med. 2002; 347 (4): p.261-271. doi: 10.1056/nejmra011913 . | Open in Read by QxMD
  22. Salvarani C, Cantini F, Hunder GG. Polymyalgia rheumatica and giant-cell arteritis. Lancet. 2008; 372 (9634): p.234-245. doi: 10.1016/s0140-6736(08)61077-6 . | Open in Read by QxMD
  23. Dasgupta B, Borg FA, Hassan N, et al. BSR and BHPR guidelines for the management of giant cell arteritis. Rheumatology. 2010; 49 (8): p.1594-1597. doi: 10.1093/rheumatology/keq039a . | Open in Read by QxMD
  24. Peixoto AJ. Acute Severe Hypertension. N Engl J Med. 2019; 381 (19): p.1843-1852. doi: 10.1056/nejmcp1901117 . | Open in Read by QxMD
  25. Whelton PK, Carey RM, Aronow WS, et al. 2017 ACC/AHA/AAPA/ABC/ACPM/AGS/APhA/ASH/ASPC/NMA/PCNA Guideline for the Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Management of High Blood Pressure in Adults: Executive Summary: A Report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Clinical Practice Guidelines. Circulation. 2018; 138 (17). doi: 10.1161/cir.0000000000000597 . | Open in Read by QxMD
  26. Powers WJ, Rabinstein AA, Ackerson T, et al. 2018 Guidelines for the Early Management of Patients With Acute Ischemic Stroke: A Guideline for Healthcare Professionals From the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association. Stroke. 2018; 49 (3). doi: 10.1161/str.0000000000000158 . | Open in Read by QxMD
  27. Rudkin S, Cerejo R, Tayal A, Goldberg MF. Imaging of acute ischemic stroke. Emerg Radiol. 2018; 25 (6): p.659-672. doi: 10.1007/s10140-018-1623-x . | Open in Read by QxMD
  28. Overview of Intracranial Tumors. Updated: June 1, 2019. Accessed: November 25, 2019.
  29. Brain Tumors. . Accessed: November 24, 2019.
  30. Villanueva-Meyer JE, et al.. Current Clinical Brain Tumor Imaging. Neurosurgery. 2017; 81 (3): p.397-415. doi: 10.1093/neuros/nyx103 . | Open in Read by QxMD
  31. Reams N, Bodnya J. Concussion management. Disease-a-Month. 2019; 65 (10): p.100853. doi: 10.1016/j.disamonth.2019.02.006 . | Open in Read by QxMD
  32. Giza CC, Kutcher JS, Ashwal S, et al. Summary of evidence-based guideline update: Evaluation and management of concussion in sports: Report of the Guideline Development Subcommittee of the American Academy of Neurology. Neurology. 2013; 80 (24): p.2250-2257. doi: 10.1212/wnl.0b013e31828d57dd . | Open in Read by QxMD
  33. McCrory P, Meeuwisse WH, Aubry M, et al. Consensus statement on concussion in sport: the 4th International Conference on Concussion in Sport held in Zurich, November 2012. Br J Sports Med. 2013; 47 (5): p.250-258. doi: 10.1136/bjsports-2013-092313 . | Open in Read by QxMD
  34. Angle-Closure Glaucoma. Updated: December 18, 2013. Accessed: March 17, 2017.
  35. Acute Closed Angle Glaucoma. Updated: January 1, 2019. Accessed: November 25, 2019.
  36. Baum J, Chaturvedi N, Netland PA, Dreyer EB. Assessment of Intraocular Pressure by Palpation. Am J Ophthalmol. 1995; 119 (5): p.650-651. doi: 10.1016/s0002-9394(14)70227-2 . | Open in Read by QxMD
  37. Cruccu G, Finnerup NB, Jensen TS, et al. Trigeminal neuralgia. Neurology. 2016; 87 (2): p.220-228. doi: 10.1212/wnl.0000000000002840 . | Open in Read by QxMD
  38. Trigeminal neuralgia. . Accessed: November 3, 2019.
  39. Le T, Bhushan V, Chen V, King M. First Aid for the USMLE Step 2 CK. McGraw-Hill Education ; 2015
  40. Jenkins B, McInnis M, Lewis C. Step-Up to USMLE Step 2 CK. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins ; 2015
  41. Nelson JA. Local skull trephination before transfer is associated with favorable outcomes in cerebral herniation from epidural hematoma. Acad Emerg Med. 2011; 18 (1): p.78-85. doi: 10.1111/j.1553-2712.2010.00949.x . | Open in Read by QxMD
  42. Fischer C. Master the Boards USMLE Step 2 CK. Kaplan Publishing ; 2015
  43. Le T, Bhushan V, Sochat M. First Aid for the Usmle Step 1 2016. McGraw-Hill Education ; 2016
  44. Volpi-Abadie J, Kaye AM, Kaye AD. Serotonin syndrome.. Ochsner J. 2013; 13 (4): p.533-540.
  45. Tunkel AR, Hartman BJ, Kaplan SL, et al. Practice Guidelines for the Management of Bacterial Meningitis. Clinical Infectious Diseases. 2004; 39 (9): p.1267-1284. doi: 10.1086/425368 . | Open in Read by QxMD
  46. Orr SL, Friedman BW, Christie S, et al. Management of Adults With Acute Migraine in the Emergency Department: The American Headache Society Evidence Assessment of Parenteral Pharmacotherapies. Headache: The Journal of Head and Face Pain. 2016; 56 (6): p.911-940. doi: 10.1111/head.12835 . | Open in Read by QxMD
  47. Medication-overuse headache (MOH).
  48. Oskoui M, Pringsheim T, Holler-Managan Y, et al. Practice guideline update summary: Acute treatment of migraine in children and adolescents. Neurology. 2019; 93 (11): p.487-499. doi: 10.1212/wnl.0000000000008095 . | Open in Read by QxMD
  49. Colman I, Friedman BW, Brown MD, et al. Parenteral dexamethasone for acute severe migraine headache: meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials for preventing recurrence. BMJ. 2008; 336 (7657): p.1359-1361. doi: 10.1136/ . | Open in Read by QxMD
  50. Shahien R, Saleh SA, Bowirrat A. Intravenous sodium valproate aborts migraine headaches rapidly. Acta Neurol Scand. 2011; 123 (4): p.257-265. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0404.2010.01394.x . | Open in Read by QxMD
  51. Tension-type headache (TTH).
  52. Rains JC, Penzien DB, McCrory DC, Gray RN. Behavioral Headache Treatment: History, Review of the Empirical Literature, and Methodological Critique. Headache: The Journal of Head and Face Pain. 2005; 45 (s2): p.S92-S109. doi: 10.1111/j.1526-4610.2005.4502003.x . | Open in Read by QxMD
  53. Robbins MS, Starling AJ, Pringsheim TM, Becker WJ, Schwedt TJ. Treatment of Cluster Headache: The American Headache Society Evidence-Based Guidelines. Headache: The Journal of Head and Face Pain. 2016; 56 (7): p.1093-1106. doi: 10.1111/head.12866 . | Open in Read by QxMD
  54. Beck E, Sieber WJ, Trejo R. Management of cluster headache.. Am Fam Physician. 2005; 71 (4): p.717-24.
  55. Francis GJ, Becker WJ, Pringsheim TM. Acute and preventive pharmacologic treatment of cluster headache. Neurology. 2010; 75 (5): p.463-473. doi: 10.1212/wnl.0b013e3181eb58c8 . | Open in Read by QxMD
  56. Rossi P, Lorenzo CD, Faroni J, Cesarino F, Nappi G. Advice Alone Vs. Structured Detoxification Programmes for Medication Overuse Headache: A Prospective, Randomized, Open-Label Trial in Transformed Migraine Patients With Low Medical Needs. Cephalalgia. 2006; 26 (9): p.1097-1105. doi: 10.1111/j.1468-2982.2006.01175.x . | Open in Read by QxMD
  57. Evers S, Jensen R. Treatment of medication overuse headache - guideline of the EFNS headache panel. Eur J Neurol. 2011; 18 (9): p.1115-1121. doi: 10.1111/j.1468-1331.2011.03497.x . | Open in Read by QxMD
  58. Altieri M, Di Giambattista R, Di Clemente L, et al. Combined Pharmacological and Short-Term Psychodynamic Psychotherapy for Probable Medication Overuse Headache: A Pilot Study. Cephalalgia. 2009; 29 (3): p.293-299. doi: 10.1111/j.1468-2982.2008.01717.x . | Open in Read by QxMD
  59. Krymchantowski A, Barbosa J. Prednisone as Initial Treatment of Analgesic-Induced Daily Headache. Cephalalgia. 2000; 20 (2): p.107-113. doi: 10.1046/j.1468-2982.2000.00028.x . | Open in Read by QxMD
  60. Goh BT, Poon CY, Peck RHL. The importance of routine magnetic resonance imaging in trigeminal neuralgia diagnosis. Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology, Oral Radiology, and Endodontology. 2001; 92 (4): p.424-429. doi: 10.1067/moe.2001.115130 . | Open in Read by QxMD
  61. Gronseth G, Cruccu G, Alksne J, et al. Practice Parameter: The diagnostic evaluation and treatment of trigeminal neuralgia (an evidence-based review): Report of the Quality Standards Subcommittee of the American Academy of Neurology and the European Federation of Neurological Societies. Neurology. 2008; 71 (15): p.1183-1190. doi: 10.1212/01.wnl.0000326598.83183.04 . | Open in Read by QxMD
  62. Bendtsen L, Zakrzewska JM, Abbott J, et al. European Academy of Neurology guideline on trigeminal neuralgia. European Journal of Neurology. 2019; 26 (6): p.831-849. doi: 10.1111/ene.13950 . | Open in Read by QxMD
  63. Frontera JA, Lewin III JJ, Rabinstein AA, et al. Guideline for Reversal of Antithrombotics in Intracranial Hemorrhage. Neurocrit Care. 2015; 24 (1): p.6-46. doi: 10.1007/s12028-015-0222-x . | Open in Read by QxMD
  64. Makris M, Van Veen JJ, Tait CR, Mumford AD, Laffan M. Guideline on the management of bleeding in patients on antithrombotic agents. Br J Haematol. 2012; 160 (1): p.35-46. doi: 10.1111/bjh.12107 . | Open in Read by QxMD
  65. Rizos T, Jenetzky E, Herweh C, Unterberg A, Hacke W, Veltkamp R. Fast point-of-care coagulometer guided reversal of oral anticoagulation at the bedside hastens management of acute subdural hemorrhage.. Neurocrit Care. 2010; 13 (3): p.321-5. doi: 10.1007/s12028-010-9443-1 . | Open in Read by QxMD
  66. Thomas S, Makris M. The reversal of anticoagulation in clinical practice .. Clin Med. 2018; 18 (4): p.314-319. doi: 10.7861/clinmedicine.18-4-314 . | Open in Read by QxMD
  67. Haselsberger K, Pucher R, Auer LM. Prognosis after acute subdural or epidural haemorrhage.. Acta Neurochir (Wien). 1988; 90 (3-4): p.111-6. doi: 10.1007/bf01560563 . | Open in Read by QxMD
  68. Oertel M, Kelly DF, McArthur D, et al. Progressive hemorrhage after head trauma: predictors and consequences of the evolving injury.. J Neurosurg. 2002; 96 (1): p.109-16. doi: 10.3171/jns.2002.96.1.0109 . | Open in Read by QxMD
  69. Han SR. Conservative management of a rapidly calcifying epidural hematoma in a young male patient. Interdisciplinary Neurosurgery. 2015; 2 (4): p.183-185. doi: 10.1016/j.inat.2015.08.003 . | Open in Read by QxMD
  70. Won S-Y, Dubinski D, Bruder M, Cattani A, Seifert V, Konczalla J. Acute subdural hematoma in patients on oral anticoagulant therapy: management and outcome. Neurosurg Focus. 2017; 43 (5): p.E12. doi: 10.3171/2017.8.focus17421 . | Open in Read by QxMD
  71. Seelig JM, Becker DP, Miller JD, Greenberg RP, Ward JD, Choi SC. Traumatic acute subdural hematoma: major mortality reduction in comatose patients treated within four hours.. N Engl J Med. 1981; 304 (25): p.1511-8. doi: 10.1056/NEJM198106183042503 . | Open in Read by QxMD
  72. Li H, Pan R, Wang H, et al. Clipping Versus Coiling for Ruptured Intracranial Aneurysms. Stroke. 2013; 44 (1): p.29-37. doi: 10.1161/strokeaha.112.663559 . | Open in Read by QxMD
  73. Bederson JB, Connolly ES, Batjer HH, et al. Guidelines for the Management of Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage. Stroke. 2009; 40 (3): p.994-1025. doi: 10.1161/strokeaha.108.191395 . | Open in Read by QxMD
  74. Gigante P, Hwang BY, Appelboom G, Kellner CP, Kellner MA, Connolly ES. External ventricular drainage following aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage. Br J Neurosurg. 2010; 24 (6): p.625-632. doi: 10.3109/02688697.2010.505989 . | Open in Read by QxMD
  75. Diringer MN, Bleck TP, Claude Hemphill J, et al. Critical Care Management of Patients Following Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage: Recommendations from the Neurocritical Care Society’s Multidisciplinary Consensus Conference. Neurocrit Care. 2011; 15 (2): p.211-240. doi: 10.1007/s12028-011-9605-9 . | Open in Read by QxMD
  76. Muralidharan R. External ventricular drains: Management and complications. Surgical Neurology International. 2015; 6 (7): p.271. doi: 10.4103/2152-7806.157620 . | Open in Read by QxMD
  77. Bisnaire D, Robinson L. Accuracy of levelling intraventricular collection drainage systems.. J Neurosci Nurs. 1997; 29 (4): p.261-8. doi: 10.1097/01376517-199708000-00008 . | Open in Read by QxMD
  78. CHRISTENSEN TD, LARSEN TB. Precision and accuracy of point-of-care testing coagulometers used for self-testing and self-management of oral anticoagulation therapy. Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis. 2012; 10 (2): p.251-260. doi: 10.1111/j.1538-7836.2011.04568.x . | Open in Read by QxMD
  79. Velat GJ, Kimball MM, Mocco JD, Hoh BL. Vasospasm After Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage: Review of Randomized Controlled Trials and Meta-Analyses in the Literature. World Neurosurgery. 2011; 76 (5): p.446-454. doi: 10.1016/j.wneu.2011.02.030 . | Open in Read by QxMD
  80. Tichter AM, Malhi J. Does Magnesium Therapy in Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage Affect Clinical Outcome?. Ann Emerg Med. 2017; 69 (2): p.208-209. doi: 10.1016/j.annemergmed.2016.05.027 . | Open in Read by QxMD
  81. Zazulia A, Diringer M. Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage: Strategies for Preventing Vasospasm in the Intensive Care Unit. Semin Respir Crit Care Med. 2017; 38 (06): p.760-767. doi: 10.1055/s-0037-1607990 . | Open in Read by QxMD
  82. Kirkpatrick PJ, Turner CL, Smith C, Hutchinson PJ, Murray GD. Simvastatin in aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage (STASH): a multicentre randomised phase 3 trial. The Lancet Neurology. 2014; 13 (7): p.666-675. doi: 10.1016/s1474-4422(14)70084-5 . | Open in Read by QxMD
  83. Qureshi AI, Palesch YY, Barsan WG, et al. Intensive Blood-Pressure Lowering in Patients with Acute Cerebral Hemorrhage. N Engl J Med. 2016; 375 (11): p.1033-1043. doi: 10.1056/nejmoa1603460 . | Open in Read by QxMD
  84. Antihypertensive Treatment of Acute Cerebral Hemorrhage (ATACH) investigators.. Antihypertensive treatment of acute cerebral hemorrhage.. Crit Care Med. 2010; 38 (2): p.637-48. doi: 10.1097/CCM.0b013e3181b9e1a5 . | Open in Read by QxMD
  85. Anderson CS, Heeley E, Huang Y, et al. Rapid Blood-Pressure Lowering in Patients with Acute Intracerebral Hemorrhage. N Engl J Med. 2013; 368 (25): p.2355-2365. doi: 10.1056/nejmoa1214609 . | Open in Read by QxMD
  86. Sports-Related Concussion. Updated: November 1, 2017. Accessed: November 15, 2019.
  87. Concussion. . Accessed: November 15, 2019.
  88. Angle-Closure Glaucoma. Updated: October 1, 2019. Accessed: November 25, 2019.
  89. Ropper AH. Management of raised intracranial pressure and hyperosmolar therapy. Pract Neurol. 2014; 14 (3): p.152-158. doi: 10.1136/practneurol-2014-000811 . | Open in Read by QxMD
  90. Helbok R, Kurtz P, Schmidt JM, et al. Effect of mannitol on brain metabolism and tissue oxygenation in severe haemorrhagic stroke. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery & Psychiatry. 2010; 82 (4): p.378-383. doi: 10.1136/jnnp.2009.198754 . | Open in Read by QxMD
  91. Gerard C, Busl KM. Treatment of Acute Subdural Hematoma. Curr Treat Options Neurol. 2013; 16 (1). doi: 10.1007/s11940-013-0275-0 . | Open in Read by QxMD
  92. Mosarla RC, et al.. Anticoagulation Strategies in Patients With Cancer. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2019; 73 (11): p.1336-1349. doi: 10.1016/j.jacc.2019.01.017 . | Open in Read by QxMD
  93. American Headache Society. The American Headache Society Position Statement On Integrating New Migraine Treatments Into Clinical Practice. Headache: The Journal of Head and Face Pain. 2018; 59 (1): p.1-18. doi: 10.1111/head.13456 . | Open in Read by QxMD
  94. Marmura MJ, Silberstein SD, Schwedt TJ. The Acute Treatment of Migraine in Adults: The American Headache Society Evidence Assessment of Migraine Pharmacotherapies. Headache: The Journal of Head and Face Pain. 2015; 55 (1): p.3-20. doi: 10.1111/head.12499 . | Open in Read by QxMD
  95. D’Souza RS, Mercogliano C, Ojukwu E, et al. Effects of prophylactic anticholinergic medications to decrease extrapyramidal side effects in patients taking acute antiemetic drugs: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Emergency Medicine Journal. 2018; 35 (5): p.325-331. doi: 10.1136/emermed-2017-206944 . | Open in Read by QxMD
  96. Al‐Saffar A, Lennernäs H, Hellström PM. Gastroparesis, metoclopramide, and tardive dyskinesia: Risk revisited. Neurogastroenterology & Motility. 2019 : p.e13617. doi: 10.1111/nmo.13617 . | Open in Read by QxMD
  97. Wijemanne S, Jankovic J, Evans RW. Movement Disorders From the Use of Metoclopramide and Other Antiemetics in the Treatment of Migraine. Headache: The Journal of Head and Face Pain. 2015; 56 (1): p.153-161. doi: 10.1111/head.12712 . | Open in Read by QxMD
  98. Wei DY, Khalil M, Goadsby PJ. Managing cluster headache. Pract Neurol. 2019; 19 (6): p.521-528. doi: 10.1136/practneurol-2018-002124 . | Open in Read by QxMD
  99. May A. Cluster headache: pathogenesis, diagnosis, and management. Lancet. 2005; 366 (9488): p.843-855. doi: 10.1016/s0140-6736(05)67217-0 . | Open in Read by QxMD
  100. Burish MJ. Cluster Headache: History, Mechanisms, and Most Importantly, Treatment Options. Practical Neurology. 2017 : p.34-36.
  101. Moore D, Chong MS, Shetty A, Zakrzewska JM. A systematic review of rescue analgesic strategies in acute exacerbations of primary trigeminal neuralgia. Br J Anaesth. 2019; 123 (2): p.e385-e396. doi: 10.1016/j.bja.2019.05.026 . | Open in Read by QxMD
  102. Broderick J, et al.. Guidelines for the Management of Spontaneous Intracerebral Hemorrhage in Adults. Stroke. 2007; 38 (6): p.2001-2023. doi: 10.1161/strokeaha.107.183689 . | Open in Read by QxMD
  103. Ravishankar K. The art of history-taking in a headache patient. Annals of Indian Academy of Neurology. 2012; 15 (5): p.7. doi: 10.4103/0972-2327.99989 . | Open in Read by QxMD
  104. Prum BE, Herndon LW, Moroi SE, et al. Primary Angle Closure Preferred Practice Pattern® Guidelines. Ophthalmology. 2016; 123 (1): p.P1-P40. doi: 10.1016/j.ophtha.2015.10.049 . | Open in Read by QxMD
  105. Flores-Sánchez BC, Tatham AJ. Acute angle closure glaucoma. Br J Hosp Med. 2019; 80 (12): p.C174-C179. doi: 10.12968/hmed.2019.80.12.c174 . | Open in Read by QxMD
  106. Ferro JM, Canhão P. Acute treatment of cerebral venous and dural sinus thrombosis. Curr Treat Options Neurol. 2008; 10 (2): p.126-137. doi: 10.1007/s11940-008-0014-0 . | Open in Read by QxMD
  107. Einhäupl KM, Villringer A, Mehraein S, et al. Heparin treatment in sinus venous thrombosis. The Lancet. 1991; 338 (8767): p.597-600. doi: 10.1016/0140-6736(91)90607-q . | Open in Read by QxMD
  108. Fomchenko EI, Gilmore EJ, Matouk CC, Gerrard JL, Sheth KN. Management of Subdural Hematomas: Part I. Medical Management of Subdural Hematomas. Curr Treat Options Neurol. 2018; 20 (8). doi: 10.1007/s11940-018-0517-2 . | Open in Read by QxMD
  109. Ortega-Gutierrez S, et al. Effectiveness and Safety of Nicardipine and Labetalol Infusion for Blood Pressure Management in Patients with Intracerebral and Subarachnoid Hemorrhage. Neurocrit Care. 2012; 18 (1): p.13-19. doi: 10.1007/s12028-012-9782-1 . | Open in Read by QxMD