Nephrotic syndrome

Last updated: September 11, 2023

Summarytoggle arrow icon

Nephrotic syndrome is a collection of signs and symptoms indicating damage to the glomerular filtration barrier. It is characterized by massive proteinuria (> 3.5 g/24 hours), hypoalbuminemia, and edema. In adults, the most common causes of nephrotic syndrome include focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) and membranous nephropathy. In children, nephrotic syndrome is most commonly caused by minimal change disease (MCD). Nephrotic syndrome can also be a manifestation of advanced renal disease in systemic conditions (e.g., diabetic nephropathy or amyloid nephropathy). Typical laboratory findings of nephrotic syndrome include hyperlipidemia and fatty casts on urinalysis. Treatment for FSGS, membranous nephropathy, and MCD usually includes immunosuppressive therapy. Nephrotic syndrome due to advanced renal disease is associated with a worse prognosis and is more difficult to treat.

See the section “Core IM podcast 5 pearls on nephrotic syndrome” for their complete show notes on this topic.

Definitiontoggle arrow icon

Overviewtoggle arrow icon

Differential diagnoses of nephrotic syndrome [2][3][4][5][6]
Disease Epidemiology




Minimal change disease (lipoid nephrosis)

  • Most common cause of nephrotic syndrome in children
Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis
  • Most common cause of nephrotic syndrome in adults, especially in African American and Hispanic populations
Membranous nephropathy
  • Most common cause of nephrotic syndrome in adults of European, Middle Eastern, or North African descent
Diabetic nephropathy
  • Leading cause of ESRD in high-income countries
  • Usually additional signs of other organ system complications (e.g., retinopathy, neuropathy)
Amyloid nephropathy
  • More commonly seen in elderly patients [11]
Membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis
LM = light microscopy, IM = immunofluorescent microscopy, EM = electron microscopy

Etiologytoggle arrow icon

Nephrotic syndrome may be caused by primary glomerular disorders (80–90% of cases) and/or systemic diseases and toxic exposures (10–20% of cases). [12]

Pathophysiologytoggle arrow icon

Damage of glomerular filtration barrier [13][14]

FSGS is classically not associated with immune complex deposition.

Sequelae of glomerular filter damage [13][14]

Clinical featurestoggle arrow icon

Diagnosticstoggle arrow icon


  1. Confirm nephrotic-range proteinuria.
  2. Assess for potential concomitant and underlying conditions.
  3. Assess for nephrotic syndrome complications.
  4. Consider kidney biopsy to determine renal pathology.

Initial evaluation [12][22]

Confirmation of nephrotic-range proteinuria

Urine sediment microscopy [27]

Additional laboratory studies


Subsequent evaluation [12][22]

Additional testing to assess for potential concomitant conditions and underlying causes should be based on clinical suspicion. [30]

Work-up for concomitant conditions and underlying causes of nephrotic syndrome
Suspected condition Recommended studies
Diabetic nephropathy
Membranous nephropathy
Lupus nephritis

Multiple myeloma

and other plasma cell dyscrasias

Chronic viral infection
Congenital nephrotic syndromes

Renal biopsy [12][22]

  • Indication: to confirm the diagnosis when the etiology of nephrotic syndrome is unclear and/or to guide management
    • Often required in adult patients to guide management.
    • Sometimes deferred when a likely cause of nephrotic symptoms is evident [31][32]
    • Consult nephrology to determine the necessity and timing of biopsy.
  • Interpretation: See the “Pathology” section.

Pathologytoggle arrow icon

Classification of nephrotic syndrome is based on the pattern of injury as seen on light microscopy (LM) of a renal biopsy specimen. For a complete assessment, all biopsy specimens should be analyzed using LM, immunofluorescence microscopy (IM), and electron microscopy (EM).

Treatmenttoggle arrow icon

Management of symptoms and complications of nephrotic syndrome [1][12][22]

Edema [1][12][22]

Proteinuria [1][12][22]

Elimination or reduction of proteinuria; is a major treatment goal for nephrotic syndrome and can lead to increased serum albumin, decreased edema; , attenuation of the metabolic effects of heavy proteinuria (e.g., hyperlipidemia), reduction in risk of thromboembolism and infection, and slowing of the progression of chronic kidney disease.

Dyslipidemia [1][22][39]

  • Lipid-lowering therapy (e.g., atorvastatin )
  • Indications similar to those in other patients with a high risk of cardiovascular disease (See “Treatment” in “Lipid disorders”)

Hypercoagulability [1][22][40]

All patients with nephrotic syndrome are at increased risk of thromboembolism, and this risk becomes progressively higher as serum albumin drops below 3.0 g/L.

Infectious risk [41]

Disease-specific measures [1][32]

Primary membranous nephropathy [1]

Primary (idiopathic) focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) [1]

Primary (idiopathic) minimal change disease (MCD) [1]

Diabetic nephropathy [43]

Amyloid nephropathy [44]

Lupus nephritis

Complicationstoggle arrow icon

Thrombotic complications [45]

Atherosclerotic complications [45][48]

Chronic kidney disease

Increased risk of infection [49][50]

Protein malnutrition

  • Loss in lean body mass due to proteinuria may be masked by weight gain caused by concurrent edema.

Vitamin D deficiency


We list the most important complications. The selection is not exhaustive.

Differential diagnosestoggle arrow icon

The differential diagnoses listed here are not exhaustive.

Prognosistoggle arrow icon

  • The prognosis for minimal change disease is usually excellent.
  • With a wide variety of underlying diseases, the response to treatment can differ dramatically. Individuals with nephrotic syndrome often develop progressive renal failure despite treatment and go on to require dialysis.

Core IM podcast: 5 pearls on nephrotic syndrometoggle arrow icon

Amboss has partnered with the popular Core IM podcast to bring you digestible internal medicine content on complex medical topics. In this section, you’ll find their 5 clinical pearls on the diagnosis and management of nephrotic syndrome. Check out their website for the full show notes and listen to our coproduced episode on your favorite podcast platform.

Referencestoggle arrow icon

  1. Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO). Clinical Practice Guideline for Glomerulonephritis. Kidney International Supplements. 2012; 2 (2): p.139.doi: 10.1038/kisup.2012.9 . | Open in Read by QxMD
  2. Kodner C. Diagnosis and Management of Nephrotic Syndrome in Adults.. Am Fam Physician. 2016; 93 (6): p.479-85.
  3. Klahr S, Tripathy K, Bolanos O. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of urinary lipids in the nephrotic syndrome. J Clin Invest. ; 46 (9): p.1475-1481.doi: 10.1172/JCI105639 . | Open in Read by QxMD
  4. Doucet C, Mooser V, Gonbert S, et al. Lipoprotein(a) in the Nephrotic Syndrome: Molecular Analysis of Lipoprotein(a) and Apolipoprotein(a) Fragments in Plasma and Urine. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2000; 11 (3): p.507-513.
  5. Xueping Wu, Lei Liu, Yaling Guo, and Lijuan Yang. Clinical value of a serum anti-PLA2R antibody in the diagnosis and monitoring of primary membranous nephropathy in adults. International Journal of Nephrology and Renovascular Disease. 2018.
  6. Mazdak A. Khalighi, W. Dean Wallace, and Miguel F. Palma-Diaz. Amyloid nephropathy. Clinical Kidney Journal. 2014.
  7. Chugh SS, Clement LC, Macé C. New Insights Into Human Minimal Change Disease: Lessons From Animal Models. Am J Kidney Dis. 2012; 59 (2): p.284-292.doi: 10.1053/j.ajkd.2011.07.024 . | Open in Read by QxMD
  8. Eric C. Siddall, Jai Radhakrishnan. The pathophysiology of edema formation in the nephrotic syndrome. Kidney International. 2012.
  9. Claudio Ponticelli, MDa, MD Claudio Ponticelli, MD Claudio Ponticelli, Gabriele Sala, BS Psya, Richard J. Glassock, MD. Drug Management in the Elderly Adult With Chronic Kidney Disease: A Review for the Primary Care Physician. Mayo Clinic Proceedings. 2015.
  10. R Gugler, D W Shoeman, D H Huffman, J B Cohlmia, and D L Azarnoff. Pharmacokinetics of drugs in patients with the nephrotic syndrome.. Journal of Clinical Investigation. 1975.
  11. F. Keller, M. Maiga, H.-H. Neumayer, H. Lode, A. Distler. Pharmacokinetic effects of altered plasma protein binding of drugs in renal disease. European Journal of Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics. 1984.
  12. Jai Radhakrishnan, MD, MS. Lipid abnormalities in nephrotic syndrome. In: Post TW, ed. UpToDate. Waltham, MA: UpToDate. Last updated: January 15, 2018. Accessed: August 13, 2019.
  13. Hull RP, Goldsmith DJA. Nephrotic syndrome in adults. BMJ. 2008; 336 (7654): p.1185-1189.doi: 10.1136/bmj.39576.709711.80 . | Open in Read by QxMD
  14. Floege J, Barbour SJ, Cattran DC, et al. Management and treatment of glomerular diseases (part 1): conclusions from a Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) Controversies Conference. Kidney Int. 2019; 95 (2): p.268-280.doi: 10.1016/j.kint.2018.10.018 . | Open in Read by QxMD
  15. LANE C, BROWN M, DUNSMUIR W, KELLY J, MANGOS G. Can spot urine protein/creatinine ratio replace 24 h urine protein in usual clinical nephrology?. Nephrology. 2006; 11 (3): p.245-249.doi: 10.1111/j.1440-1797.2006.00564.x . | Open in Read by QxMD
  16. Hebert LA, Birmingham DJ, Shidham G, Rovin B, Nagaraja HN, Yu C-Y. Random Spot Urine Protein/Creatinine Ratio Is Unreliable for Estimating 24-Hour Proteinuria in Individual Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Nephritis Patients. Nephron Clinical Practice. 2009; 113 (3): p.c177-c182.doi: 10.1159/000232599 . | Open in Read by QxMD
  17. Chitalia VC, Kothari J, Wells EJ, et al. Cost-benefit analysis and prediction of 24-hour proteinuria from the spot urine protein-creatinine ratio.. Clin Nephrol. 2001; 55 (6): p.436-47.
  18. Fogazzi GB, Verdesca S. The urinary sediment: An integrated view. Elsevier srl ; 2015: p. 211-213
  19. Kanfer A. Coagulation Factors in Nephrotic Syndrome. Am J Nephrol. 1990; 10 (1): p.63-68.doi: 10.1159/000168196 . | Open in Read by QxMD
  20. De Sain-van der Velden MGM, Kaysen GA, de Meer K, et al. Proportionate increase of fibrinogen and albumin synthesis in nephrotic patients: Measurements with stable isotopes. Kidney Int. 1998; 53 (1): p.181-188.doi: 10.1046/j.1523-1755.1998.00729.x . | Open in Read by QxMD
  21. Howard AD, Moore J, Gouge SF, et al. Routine Serologic Tests in the Differential Diagnosis of the Adult Nephrotic Syndrome. American Journal of Kidney Diseases. 1990; 15 (1): p.24-30.doi: 10.1016/s0272-6386(12)80588-9 . | Open in Read by QxMD
  22. Canetta PAA, Radhakrishnan J. The Evidence-Based Approach to Adult-Onset Idiopathic Nephrotic Syndrome. Frontiers in Pediatrics. 2015; 3.doi: 10.3389/fped.2015.00078 . | Open in Read by QxMD
  23. Mahalingasivam V, Booth J, Sheaff M, Yaqoob M. Nephrotic syndrome in adults.. Acute med. 2018; 17 (1): p.36-43.
  24. Hoorn EJ, Ellison DH. Diuretic Resistance.. Am J Kidney Dis. 2017; 69 (1): p.136-142.doi: 10.1053/j.ajkd.2016.08.027 . | Open in Read by QxMD
  25. Duffy M, Jain S, Harrell N, Kothari N, Reddi AS. Albumin and Furosemide Combination for Management of Edema in Nephrotic Syndrome: A Review of Clinical Studies.. Cells. 2015; 4 (4): p.622-30.doi: 10.3390/cells4040622 . | Open in Read by QxMD
  26. Tsouli SG, Liberopoulos EN, Kiortsis DN, Mikhailidis DP, Elisaf MS. Combined Treatment With Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors and Angiotensin II Receptor Blockers: A Review of the Current Evidence. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol Ther. 2006; 11 (1): p.1-15.doi: 10.1177/107424840601100101 . | Open in Read by QxMD
  27. Vogt L, Waanders F, Boomsma F, de Zeeuw D, Navis G. Effects of Dietary Sodium and Hydrochlorothiazide on the Antiproteinuric Efficacy of Losartan. Journal of the American Society of Nephrology. 2008; 19 (5): p.999-1007.doi: 10.1681/asn.2007060693 . | Open in Read by QxMD
  28. Chrysostomou A, Pedagogos E, MacGregor L, Becker GJ. Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study on the Effect of the Aldosterone Receptor Antagonist Spironolactone in Patients Who Have Persistent Proteinuria and Are on Long-Term Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitor Therapy, with or without an Angiotensin II Receptor Blocker. Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology. 2006; 1 (2): p.256-262.doi: 10.2215/cjn.01040905 . | Open in Read by QxMD
  29. Kaysen GA, Gambertoglio J, Jimenez I, Jones H, Hutchison FN. Effect of dietary protein intake on albumin homeostasis in nephrotic patients.. Kidney International. 1986.
  30. Kong X, Yuan H, Fan J, Li Z, Wu T, Jiang L. Lipid-lowering agents for nephrotic syndrome. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 2013.doi: 10.1002/14651858.cd005425.pub2 . | Open in Read by QxMD
  31. Lin R, McDonald G, Jolly T, Batten A, Chacko B. A Systematic Review of Prophylactic Anticoagulation in Nephrotic Syndrome. Kidney International Reports. 2020; 5 (4): p.435-447.doi: 10.1016/j.ekir.2019.12.001 . | Open in Read by QxMD
  32. Wu HM, Tang J-L, Cao L, Sha ZH, Li Y. Interventions for preventing infection in nephrotic syndrome. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 2012.doi: 10.1002/14651858.cd003964.pub3 . | Open in Read by QxMD
  33. Downie ML, Gallibois C, Parekh RS, Noone DG. Nephrotic syndrome in infants and children: pathophysiology and management. Paediatrics and International Child Health. 2017; 37 (4): p.248-258.doi: 10.1080/20469047.2017.1374003 . | Open in Read by QxMD
  34. American Diabetes Association (AMA). 11. Microvascular Complications and Foot Care: Standards of Medical Care in Diabetes−2020. Diabetes Care. 2019; 43 (Supplement 1): p.S135-S151.doi: 10.2337/dc20-s011 . | Open in Read by QxMD
  35. Khalighi MA, Dean Wallace W, Palma-Diaz MF. Amyloid nephropathy. Clinical Kidney Journal. 2014; 7 (2): p.97-106.doi: 10.1093/ckj/sfu021 . | Open in Read by QxMD
  36. Park SJ, Shin JI . Complications of nephrotic syndrome. Korean J Pediatr. 2011; 54 (8): p.322–328.doi: 10.3345/kjp.2011.54.8.322 . | Open in Read by QxMD
  37. Asghar M, Ahmed K, Shah SS, Siddique MK, Dasgupta P, Khan MS. Renal Vein Thrombosis. European Journal of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery. 2007; 34 (2): p.217-223.doi: 10.1016/j.ejvs.2007.02.017 . | Open in Read by QxMD
  38. Lionaki S, Derebail VK, Hogan SL, et al. Venous Thromboembolism in Patients with Membranous Nephropathy. Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology. 2011; 7 (1): p.43-51.doi: 10.2215/cjn.04250511 . | Open in Read by QxMD
  39. Yun YW, Chung S, You SJ, et al. Cerebral infarction as a complication of nephrotic syndrome: a case report with a review of the literature. J Korean Med Sci. 2004; 19 (2): p.315-319.doi: 10.3346/jkms.2004.19.2.315 . | Open in Read by QxMD
  40. Kumar M, Ghunawat J, Saikia D, Manchanda V. Incidence and risk factors for major infections in hospitalized children with nephrotic syndrome.. Jornal brasileiro de nefrologia : 'orgao oficial de Sociedades Brasileira e Latino-Americana de Nefrologia. ; 41 (4): p.526-533.doi: 10.1590/2175-8239-JBN-2019-0001 . | Open in Read by QxMD
  41. al-Bander HA, Martin VI, Kaysen GA. Plasma IgG pool is not defended from urinary loss in nephrotic syndrome.. Am J Physiol. 1992; 262 (3 Pt 2): p.F333-7.doi: 10.1152/ajprenal.1992.262.3.F333 . | Open in Read by QxMD
  42. Sato KA, Gray RW, Lemann J Jr. Urinary excretion of 25-hydroxyvitamin D in health and the nephrotic syndrome.. J Lab Clin Med. 1982; 99 (3): p.325-30.
  43. Alon U, Chan JC. Calcium and vitamin D homeostasis in the nephrotic syndrome: current status.. Nephron. 1984; 36 (1): p.1-4.doi: 10.1159/000183106 . | Open in Read by QxMD
  44. Banerjee S, Basu S, Akhtar S, Sinha R, Sen A, Sengupta J. Free vitamin D levels in steroid-sensitive nephrotic syndrome and healthy controls.. Pediatr Nephrol. 2020; 35 (3): p.447-454.doi: 10.1007/s00467-019-04433-1 . | Open in Read by QxMD
  45. Malluche HH, Goldstein DA, Massry SG. Osteomalacia and hyperparathyroid bone disease in patients with nephrotic syndrome.. J Clin Invest. 1979; 63 (3): p.494-500.doi: 10.1172/JCI109327 . | Open in Read by QxMD
  46. Iorember F, Aviles D. Anemia in nephrotic syndrome: approach to evaluation and treatment.. Pediatr Nephrol. 2017; 32 (8): p.1323-1330.doi: 10.1007/s00467-016-3555-6 . | Open in Read by QxMD
  47. Kasper DL, Fauci AS, Hauser SL, Longo DL, Lameson JL, Loscalzo J. Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine. McGraw-Hill Education ; 2015
  48. Papadakis MA, McPhee SJ, Rabow MW. CURRENT Medical Diagnosis and Treatment 2016. McGraw-Hill Education ; 2015
  49. Goldman L, Schafer AI. Goldman-Cecil Medicine, 25th Edition. Elsevier ; 2016
  50. Cattran DC, Glassock RJ, Fervenza FC, Lam AQ. Treatment of Idiopathic Membranous Nephropathy. In: Post TW, ed. UpToDate. Waltham, MA: UpToDate. Last updated: November 9, 2016. Accessed: May 30, 2018.
  51. Glomerular Capillary Wall Thickening on H&E – A Case of Membranous GN. Updated: September 20, 2017. Accessed: May 30, 2018.
  52. J. H. H. Ehrich, Guido Filler. A child with nephrotic syndrome and with focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis: do we have to care about associated malformations?. Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation. 1996.
  53. MICHELLE P. WINN. Not All in the Family: Mutations of Podocin in Sporadic Steroid-Resistant Nephrotic Syndrome. Journal of the American Society of Nephrology. 2002.
  54. Leeaphorn N, Kue-A-Pai P, Thamcharoen N, Ungprasert P, Stokes MB, Knight EL.. Prevalence of Cancer in Membranous Nephropathy: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Observational Studies. American Journal of Nephrology. 2014.
  55. Elissa Oliveira da Fonseca, Porphirio Jose Soares Filho, Licinio Esmeraldo da Silva, and Maria Lucia Ribeiro Caldas. Epidemiological, clinical and laboratorial profile of renal amyloidosis: a 12-year retrospective study of 37 cases. Journal of Nephropathology. 2015.
  56. Agabegi SS, Agabegi ED. Step-Up To Medicine. Wolters Kluwer Health ; 2015
  57. Le T, Bhushan V, Chen V, King M. First Aid for the USMLE Step 2 CK. McGraw-Hill Education ; 2015
  58. Le T, Bhushan V, Sochat M, Petersen M, Micevic G, Kallianos K. First Aid for the USMLE Step 1 2014. McGraw-Hill Medical ; 2014
  59. Jenkins B, McInnis M, Lewis C. Step-Up to USMLE Step 2 CK. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins ; 2015
  60. Longo D, Fauci A, Kasper D, Hauser S, Jameson J, Loscalzo J. Harrisons's Principles of Internal Medicine, 18th Edition, 2011. McGraw-Hill Medical ; 2011
  61. Fogazzi GB. The urinary sediment: An integrated view. Elsevier ; 2010
  62. Radhakrishnan J. Pathophysiology and treatment of edema in patients with the nephrotic syndrome. In: Post TW, ed. UpToDate. Waltham, MA: UpToDate. Last updated: May 20, 2015. Accessed: April 18, 2017.
  63. Niaudet P. Symptomatic management of nephrotic syndrome in children. In: Post TW, ed. UpToDate. Waltham, MA: UpToDate. Last updated: November 30, 2017. Accessed: April 18, 2017.
  64. Radhakrishnan J. Renal vein thrombosis and hypercoagulable state in nephrotic syndrome. In: Post TW, ed. UpToDate. Waltham, MA: UpToDate. Last updated: January 25, 2017. Accessed: April 18, 2017.
  65. Fervenza FC, Sethi S. Evaluation and treatment of membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis. In: Post TW, ed. UpToDate. Waltham, MA: UpToDate. Last updated: November 7, 2016. Accessed: April 18, 2017.
  66. Cohen EP. Nephrotic Syndrome. Nephrotic Syndrome. New York, NY: WebMD. Updated: December 24, 2016. Accessed: April 18, 2017.
  67. Bassam Alchi and David Jayne. Membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis. Pediatric Nephrology. 2010.
  68. Ma H, Sandor DG, Beck LH Jr.. The role of complement in membranous nephropathy.. Seminars in Nephrology. 2013.
  69. Rosalie M. Sterner, Stella P. Hartono, and Joseph P. Grande. The Pathogenesis of Lupus Nephritis. Journal of Clinical and Cellular Immunology. 2014.
  70. Lihua Zhang, Haitao Zhang, Jiong Zhang, Hong Tian, Ju Liang, and Zhihong Liu. Rivaroxaban for the treatment of venous thromboembolism in patients with nephrotic syndrome and low AT-III: A pilot study. Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine. 2018.
  71. Bomback A.S., Fervenza F.C.. Membranous Nephropathy: Approaches to Treatment. American Journal of Nephrology. 2018.
  72. J T Brocklebank and S Wolfe. Dietary treatment of renal insufficiency.. Archives of Disease in Childhood. 1993.
  73. Paul J. Hoover, MD, PhD and Karen H. Costenbader, MD, MPH. Insights into the Epidemiology and Management of Lupus Nephritis from the U.S. Rheumatologist’s Perspective. Kidney International. 2017.
  74. Ginsberg JM, Chang BS, Matarese RA, Garella S. Use of Single Voided Urine Samples to Estimate Quantitative Proteinuria. N Engl J Med. 1983; 309 (25): p.1543-1546.doi: 10.1056/nejm198312223092503 . | Open in Read by QxMD
  75. Kobayashi S, Amano H, Terawaki H, Ogura M, Kawaguchi Y, Yokoo T. Spot urine protein/creatinine ratio as a reliable estimate of 24-hour proteinuria in patients with immunoglobulin A nephropathy, but not membranous nephropathy. BMC Nephrol. 2019; 20 (1).doi: 10.1186/s12882-019-1486-8 . | Open in Read by QxMD
  76. Saha TC, Singh H. Minimal Change Disease: A Review. South Med J. 2006; 99 (11): p.1264-1270.doi: 10.1097/01.smj.0000243183.87381.c2 . | Open in Read by QxMD
  77. Mathieson PW. Minimal change nephropathy and focal segmental glomerulosclerosis. Semin Immunopathol. 2007; 29 (4): p.415-426.doi: 10.1007/s00281-007-0094-z . | Open in Read by QxMD
  78. D’Agati VD, Kaskel FJ, Falk RJ. Focal Segmental Glomerulosclerosis. N Engl J Med. 2011; 365 (25): p.2398-2411.doi: 10.1056/nejmra1106556 . | Open in Read by QxMD
  79. Abdel-Hafez M, Shimada M, Lee PY, Johnson RJ, Garin EH. Idiopathic Nephrotic Syndrome and Atopy: Is There a Common Link?. American Journal of Kidney Diseases. 2009; 54 (5): p.945-953.doi: 10.1053/j.ajkd.2009.03.019 . | Open in Read by QxMD
  80. Couser WG. Primary Membranous Nephropathy. Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology. 2017; 12 (6): p.983-997.doi: 10.2215/cjn.11761116 . | Open in Read by QxMD
  81. Tervaert TWC, Mooyaart AL, Amann K, et al. Pathologic Classification of Diabetic Nephropathy. Journal of the American Society of Nephrology. 2010; 21 (4): p.556-563.doi: 10.1681/asn.2010010010 . | Open in Read by QxMD

Icon of a lockAccess full content

Sign up and get unlimited access.
 Evidence-based content, created and peer-reviewed by physicians. Read the disclaimer